Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Volume 27, Issue 5

Volume 27, Issue 5, Winter and Spring 2021

Performance of Public Universities in Pakistan: Mediating Role of Cultural Factors


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.001

The main objective of the current research is to assess the mediating role of organisational cultural between entrepreneurial orientation, structural factor and performance of public universities. The contribution of universities in the development of any country is an undeniable fact. The previous studies emphasised on such aspects, as structural factors that affect universities performance but the role of cultural factors have been ignored. The current study explores cultural factors as mediating variable between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The current research applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. We developed, through an in-depth desktop research, a questionnaire that was distributed by mailed/postal survey to the randomly selected 415 respondents working in Pakistani public universities. The collected data was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) with the help of SmartPLS 3.2.7, a widely used data analytical tool. Out study finds that cultural factors significantly mediate the relationship between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The university management at different level is expected to enhance competencies of conducting high quality teaching, research and contribution to wider society through utilisation of scarce resources and creating a congenial cultural environment to maximize outcome from the available strength and opportunities and overcome the weakness and challenges. The findings and recommendations are expected to add value to the current body of literature in the higher education and particular value addition will be for the Pakistani universities.   

Exploring Elements of Naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge

Ramsha Ishaq; Abdur Razaq; Khan Sardaraz; Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.002

This paper explores the elements of naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge (2004)
from Emile Zola’s dimension of naturalism. The major issue of the paper is that hereditary and
environment control human’s actions. It also investigates how these two elements change our
destiny and course of life. Emile Zola’s ideas have been used as tools for collecting data in this
qualitative study. The paper found out that person’s own actions are not totally responsible for
his failure, however human nature has significant role in changing their life too. Besides, the
paper observes that nature, however unseen, dominates over all aspects of human life. The paper
opens up the new ways of knowledge in the mainstream studies.

A Transcendentalist Critique of Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha

Saira Bibi, Muhammad Ramzan, Naseer Muhammad, Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.003

The paper is an attempt to find out the ways of achieving eternal peace, perfection, and
recognizing self and God in Herman Hesse’s novel Siddhartha (2003) from the prospective of
Transcendentalism. The main issue of the paper is to explore how far the elements of
Transcendentalism flow through the text of the selected novel and how characters achieve
their goal by recognizing self and individuality. Herman Hesse and Transcendentalists are
well known for spiritual themes relating God, self, nature, and perfection. This qualitative
study finds out that the novel is abundant in themes borrowed from Transcendentalism. The
research in this way opens further avenues for analyzing the text through the perspectives of

Integration of the Three Religions in Chinese Ideological History: Four Stages And Three Dimensions


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.004

There is a very remarkable phenomenon in the Chinese ideological history which is known as ‘the integration of the three religions’. The three religions refers to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Since its introduction into China in 2nd century B.C., after a long fusion with local Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism has finally succeeded in taking its roots in Middle Kingdom. Standing side by side with Confucianism and Taoism, It has become the mainstream of Chinese ideology and culture. During the process of fusion, the three schools of thought of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism have jointly formed the three cornerstones of Chinese traditional culture. Based on the fusion of Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism and Taoism, this paper explores the four stages and three dimensions of the integration of the these three religions in China

Study on Factors Influencing the Choice of Investors towards Mutual Funds

Nittan Arora; Dr. Sonia Chawla

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 41-57
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.005

The study is based on a sample of 200 qualified respondents chosen using multistage random
sampling to understand the influence of various factors on investment decision and choice of
investment towards mutual funds. The article identifies association of attributes risk perception,
investment pattern and risk taking ability with demographic factors. Study mainly focuses on the
factors influencing the choice of investors towards mutual funds and the impact of demographic
factors on risk perception, investment pattern and risk taking ability of mutual fund investors.
283 respondents contacted for getting 200 mutual funds investors. Chi-square & Henry Garret
Rating techniques applied for analysis the data. Regular return on schemes has emerged to be the
most important factor and less Procedure least important factor that affects the choice of the
investors towards selecting mutual funds. Most of the demographic factors have no significant
association with investment pattern, risk perception and risk taking ability.

Thoroughly examining the influence of managerial accounting on organizational performance with Heckman two-step technique

Quang Linh Huynh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.006

The implementation of managerial accounting practices in business has been broadly
recognized as a determinant of organizational performance. Earlier studies have not taken
sample selection bias problem into consideration when examining this relationship. The
current work scrutinizes the relation from managerial accounting adoption to organizational
performance by employing Heckman two-step technique. The data was collected from 302
publicly listed enetrprises in Vietnam’s main Stock Exchanges. The findings suggest there
exists sample selection bias in the causal link from the implementation of managerial
accounting practices to organizational performance. The current research is helpful to
managerial accounting scholars as well as business executives, in shedding light on the
association between managerial accounting practices and organizational performance. The
findings could help directors in their business decisions on adopting managerial accounting
practices which should correspond to their organizational characteristics and business
environment, where they can obtain the best organizational performance.

Approach to the assessment of the financial and accounting risks with digital economy conditions for projects (representation)

Heyder G. Wannes Alkarawy, Mohammed Madlool Al-Sultani; Hind Adnan; Nasser Jassem Nasser Al-Ssadi; Ahmed Abd Zaid Abedi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.007

The digitization of the economy in the modern world has become an inevitable process that
objectively affects all areas of society and determines the direction of its development. The
importance of the study is evidenced by the high degree of modern development combined with the
constant transformation. In the process of informing the economy, the implementation of the
principles of digitizing the economy by an organization is impossible without the use of tools that
can ensure the continuous work on making changes to the current economic system. These tools are
(acting) projects. Which called for classifying projects (representation) into the five groups. The
numerical procedures for project risk (representation) are defined from three scenarios in which
each scenario and its risks are identified. The evaluation of the assessed factors of the digital
(representation) project was developed on a scale of 3 weight points for each risk, as well as
calculating the importance of risks regarding the not optimal level for a fraction of the cost of the
project and Implementing (feasibility) the project in decision-making of choose the project
(representation) or Non-continuity of the project (representation) during implementation. Which
indicates the importance and importance of this risk to the project and to the financial stability of
the company as a whole

Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction with The lastmile Delivery Service of The Food and Beverage Industry E-Commerce in Hanoi City


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 83-100
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.008

The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors affecting
customer satisfaction with the use of last-mile delivery service in the food and
beverage industry in e-commerce in Hanoi.The authors examine the impact of
factors on customer satisfaction from 2015 to 2021 using the SERVQUAL
service quality model combined with the SERVPERF perceived level model,
and the American customer satisfaction index model - ACSI. The results
show a relatively significant impact of several factors such as reliability,
assurance, empathy and perceived value. In addition, income and gender
factors also affect customer satisfaction

A Systematic Review of the Relationship Between Human Resource Management, Ethnic Diversity, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance

Nnamoko Faith Daberechukwu, Mohd Fauzi Kamarudin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 101-119
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.009

The employee is an integral part of any organization, the job performance of the
employee is linked to his/her job satisfaction, and this influences the employee’s level of
motivation on the job which directly reflects on the organizational productivity. The
human resource management (HRM) has the key role of ensuring that the rights of each
employee are respected as well as ensuring the protection of interests and job satisfaction
of the employees. This study seeks to examine the relationship between the human
resource management, ethnic diversity, job satisfaction, and organizational productivity,
highlighting the role of the human resource management on the management of ethnic
diversity, job satisfaction as well as organizational performance. This paper is based on
previous research studies data from google scholar from the year 2010 to 2020. 19
articles were found related to the search keywords. This paper would be relevant for
further study on the relevant areas to tackle to improve the organizational performance as
well as its productivity.

Establishing the Reliability &Validity of Scale for Smart Roads: Examining the Mediating-Moderating effects of government policies, management support, beliefs, attitude & behavior

Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 120-159
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.010

Smart roads have transformed the conventional roads into more efficient and drivers friendly,
however, the transition is not easy for both developed and developing nations. Therefore, the
successful development of smart roads is possible if these countries adequately address the sociopolitical,
psychological, organizational, cultural, financial, technological issues besides issues
related to government policies, public-private partnership and support, the belief, attitude, and
behavior. This study is an effort in the same line. Data was collected from Canada, France and
Saudi Arabia. PLS-SEM was used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression was run for
moderation. The study found that innovative culture, public-private partnership, green energy,
safety and security, economic sustainability, government policies, top management support,
attitude and behavior are crucial for the development of smart roads. This study also suggeststhat
cultural issues need to be addressed for the success of smart roads.

The phenomenon of mobbing among young employees in relation to the size of the organization in Poland

Szymon Jarosz, Karol Gozdecki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 160-175
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.011

The article is deals with the phenomenon of mobbing affects young people taking their first steps on the labour market in relation to the size of the organization. It is obvious that mobbing has a deep impact on individuals. Nevertheless, it also has profound, consequences for management in the organization, quality of management and atmosphere in the organization, which consequently translates into the performance of the whole organization. The objectives of the article were achieved by using the survey questionnaire research tool. The conclusions of the article can provide important guidance to management practitioners, giving an insight into the situation of mobbing depending on the size of the organization.

Analysis of the Motives of Indian Collector’s for Accumulating Collectibles

Anshul Kaushik, Dr. Ramandeep Kaur

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 176-196
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.012

People across the globe collect numerous items ranging from stamps, stones, letter, coins, banknotes, paintings, photographs, cultural artifacts to vintage artworks. Collection might refer to some type of assortment with which the collector has an emotional connect. Money or profit in exact business term might not even be a factor to consider for a true collector. This is the feeling or the delight of owning the items which underline the true essence of collection. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the trade of collectible items especially in antique items resulting in generation of revenue for the nations. This has led to the emergence of another set of people who collect items for profit and investment around the globe, known as professional collectors. India, being no exception is also seeing its share of surge in international trade in collectibles


Baykhonov Bahodirjon Tursunbaevich; Abdulhakimov Zuhrali Tursunalievich; Khalilov Nurillo Khamidullaevich; Solieva Gulbaxor Ahmadjanovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 197-207
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.013

This article shows the ways to maintain the pace of development of the country's
economy in emergencies, taking into account the effects of globalization, the study of the
country's GDP in times of crisis, the study of the country's economic potential under the
influence of specific factors. is carried out with. These include tax reform aimed at liberalizing
the foreign exchange market, increasing incomes and stimulating production, the gradual
transition to medium-term budget planning, reducing the role of inflation targeting in the
economy, the gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and the introduction of market
mechanisms. information on reforms.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 208-220
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.014

Insurance is the mechanism of risk sifting, a financial tool specially created to reduce
the finance, impact of unexpected events that happens in every life. Wealth is an
important factor of human resource development and good health is real wealth of
society, the health is the state of being free from illness or injury. World Health
Organization (WHO), defines it as a "State of complete physical, mental, and social
well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health is a dynamic
condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to
stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called
homeostasis. This paper mainly focuses on the single women, stay-at-home mothers,
married women, working women all of whom should have adequate insurance cover. It
is the need of the hour, as it helps to safeguard their health, save money, and create a
shield of protection. Women need more medical intervention than men because they
require reproductive care and they tend to fall ill more often.

The Consumer’s pro environmental attitude and its impact on green purchase behavior

Neelam Sheraz, Saima Saleem , Shahbaz sultan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 221-233
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.015

This paper aims to analyze the consumer’s pro environmental behavior and attitude about
ecological products. The aim of this study is to analyze the consumer purchase intention and
ecological behavior towards the green items. In this study the researcher has thoroughly
examined the consumers personal norms that how a consumer react about the environment
friendly products. Governments and other companies, as significant financial institutions have
started to give a guarantee towards natural assurance by changing production strategies, produce
green items, and modifying ecological security arrangements. This paper analyzed the
environment friendly products purchase intention is safe for an environment; the customers
would have been environment concern and environmental attitude. This study has investigated
the customer’s pro-environmental attitude, personal norms, social norms and less damaging the
environment products purchase intention, which are less harm for the earth, impact on
environment friendly product behavior.
The data were collected from the 403 individuals, males and females who lived in Rawalpindi
and Islamabad through survey questionnaires. The usable questionnaires were 403 as
convenience sampling techniques was used which were used for the purpose of data analysis.
Researcher has chosen the Cross-sectional study. The data was analyzed through SPSS in which
data was measure its frequency, variance, linear regression, the descriptive statistics of the
dependent and independent variables, and mediator variables with independent and dependent
variables. Results indicate that relationship result the relationships of social norms with green
purchase behavior, personal norms with green purchase behavior and pro-environmental attitude
with green purchase behavior were found significant
This study developed a deeper understanding of the impact of independent variables personal
norms, social norms and pro environmental behavior of customers with the mediating effect of
green purchase intention on green purchase behavior.

Too big to cheat? An empirical study of the impact of firm size on earnings management in Vietnam

Dr. Do Thi Van Trang, Dr. Tran Ngoc Mai

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 234-247
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.016

Earning management has been an ongoing problem throughout the world nowadays. Determinants of earning management and their impacts are still a controversial topic. This study therefore aims to measure the impact of firm size and sale growth volatility on the manipulation among corporations in Vietnam. Firm size is evidenced positively related to the misstatements, the larger the size is, the greater motivation they have with the earnings. Sale growth volatility, which has not been widely used before, is significantly associated with the earning management. Firms with unstable sales appear to engage in earning manipulation

Keep talented Employees onboard by Work Engagement: Dark behaviors (Blame Attributions, bullying and Turnover Intention) in Organization

Samrah Jamshaid; Dr. Najma I Malik, Dr. Mohsin Atta; Adnan Ali Haider, Saba Jamshad; Kamran Jamshed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 248-265
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.017

Every organization has a dark side indeed and the present study aimed to explore dark side
behaviors in higher education institutes from the perspective of blame attribution, workplace
bullying, and turnover intention which needed to be recognized. These behaviors considered
being deviant behavior affects teachers both emotionally and physically. Current study aimed
to explore the concept of keeping intact the talented teacher through work engagement while
battling with dark behaviors. Study further analyzed the mediating role of work engagement
in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention among teachers of
HEIs. Quantitative research with the use of survey design and self-administered questionnaire
was conducted among upon a sample of purposively selected teachers from Higher Education
Institutes (HEIs) in Sargodha, Pakistan, was carried out during March to July 2019. Utrecht
Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli, et al., 2002), Blame attribution scale (Gudjonsson &
Singh, 1989), Negative Act Questionnaire (Einarsen, Raknes & Helleosy, 1994), and
Turnover Intention scale (Mitchell, et al., 2001) were used to measure the constructs of study.
Regression analysis reveals work engagement was a significant predictor for blame
attribution, workplace bullying, and turnover intention. Findings also revealed that work
engagement was a key booster to keep talented employees on board while tackling workplace
bullying and turnover intention. Findings of the study were helpful for organizations to keep
their talented employees on board and for employees to cope with dark behaviors.

Banking Sector Development, Inflation and Economic Growth of Pakistan: The Nexus

Muhammad Awais, Sayed Fayaz Ahmad, Poonam Riaz, Muhammad Ibrahim

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 266-293
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.018

Study has been conducted to analyze the causal relation among banking sector development,
inflation and economic growth of Pakistan. Study undertake the yearly data from 1960 to 2018
where as data has been collected from world bank indicators. Banking sector development has
been analyzed with help of five different variables BRM, CLP, DCP, DCB and BSI where as
Inflation has been measure with help of inflation and economic development has been measure
with GDP growth in percentage. Intiallyunitroot test has been applied on as collected data is in
time series where GDP is found stationary at level I(0) and other avriables found stationary after
taking first difference I(1).Johansson co-intergration test has been applied to identify the
relationship between variables VECM granger causality test has been applied to identify the
direction of relationship between variables. Results shows thatBidirectional causality found
between INF and BRM while unidirectional causality found from GDP to INF, INF to GDP,
GDP to CLP, INF to BSI, CLP to INF and INF to DCB Study conclude that not all the variables
are integrated with eachother only few of selected variables of banking sectors have relation with
GDP and INF.

Barriers in Implementing TQM in Secondary Schools: A comparison between privately-owned and government-owned schools of Pakistan

Abdullah Aziz , M. Jafar Hussain, , SayedFayaz Ahmad, AbidHussain Nadeem, Muhammad Ibrahim, Abdul Qayyum, Sana Amjad

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 294-307
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.019

Quality in education is essential in the overall development of a nation. In an
underdeveloped nation, such as Pakistan, the focus of quality is usually on primary or tertiary
education which overlookssecondary schooling. In this regard, theperceived causes of poor
implementation of total quality management in secondary schooling were studied. Faculties of
both public and private schools were surveyed with respect to six different barriers that are
responsible for lack of quality in the education sector. Each analyzed barrier pointed out the
extent of the educational quality. It also highlights the similarity in educational qualitydoes not
depend upon the ownership of the school. Reasons for poor perception of quality management
systems in the education sector are also discussed along with recommendations against each


G.Sh. Xonkeldieva .; Gulyorahon Bakhtiyarovna Shanazarova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 308-320
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.020

The article discusses the improvement of organizational and economic control mechanisms of the service sector while stimulating digital changes in the economy of Uzbekistan. It also pays attention to a number of areas of modernization services and analyzes all aspects of the research process that has made significant progress in this area in recent years

Identifying Dimensions of hospital cost management in Iranusing structural equation modeling

Mahsa Ghaziasgar, Shaghayegh Vahdat, Somayeh Hessam, IravanMasoudi asl, HoseinMoshiriTabrizi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 321-328
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.021

Aim: Hospitals as the most important providers of healthcare services around the world, are
facing a wide range of duty and cost of services. This article aimed to identifying the key
dimensions affecting in the cost management of Iran hospitals.
Methods: This descriptive study was performed in two qualitative and quantitative stages. First
factors influencing hospital cost management were extracted through literature and interview
with 20 experts in the field of hospital governance and proposed model was designed. Then a
questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 207 experts in the staff-and-line sector
of Tehran University of medical sciences. The research model was analyzed using exploratory
and confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS22 and Lisrel software.
Results: Five dimensions influencing hospital cost management were identified. Human
resource management and consumption resource management with factor of 0.88 and 0.71 had
the most and least significant efforts on hospital cost management.
Conclusions:This finding revealed that, for optimal hospital cost management, while considering
all five factors, human resource management should be emphasized

The Role of CEO Leadership and Project Management for Innovation Success in IT Sector of Pakistan: A Moderating Effect Of Human Capital

Hassan Daud Butt, Urooj Aijaz, Sofia Bano, Dr.Asif Shamim, Anum Hayat, Marium Mazhar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 329-348
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.022

The purpose is to examine the effect of CEO transformational leadership, and project
management best practices on innovation success with the moderating effect of human capital
in IT firms of Pakistan. Using purposive sampling technique, 306 responses have been
collected from the IT professionals of Karachi, Pakistan while PLS-SEM has been employed
for analysis. The results have shown that CEO transformational leadership and technical
aspects of project management best practices have positive effect on innovation success of IT
firms while people aspects of project management best practices have no effect on innovation
success of IT firms. However, human capital does not moderate the effect of CEO
transformational leadership and project management best practices on IT firms’ innovation
success in Pakistan. Hence, the study has suggestedthat the correct choice of tools and
procedures leads to innovation, PMBP can also be used strategically by organizations. It will
streamline management actions for the progress of innovation, as well as build invaluable
tools for the preparation, implementation, monitoring and assessment of innovative
workflows, develop improved connectivity and efficient coordination with clients

Critical Analysis of Blue Ocean Principles to Maximize the Business Opportunity and Minimize the Risk for the Success of Uber E-Taxi

Dr.K.Jawahar Rani, Dr. R.S Lekshmi, A. Priya Jenifer, V. Santhya

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 350-372
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.023

A strong framework for seeking potential business opportunities is the
Blue Ocean Strategy. This paper explains the concepts of the blue ocean
strategy, principle and risk associated with Uber and how Uber breaks
down conventional strategic competitive thinking and uses strategic
concepts of the blue ocean to increase demand and benefit for the
company. The four principles are how to establish uncontested market
space by restoring market boundaries, concentrating on the big picture,
reaching new market spaces beyond current demand and supply, and
having the strategic sequence right. Uber discovered the untapped e-taxi
market, which had enough opportunities for rapid growth and
profitability, and this initiative made it possible for them to identify
their larger, deeper potential e-taxi market in its strategic formulation,
which was not explored.


Madiha Kamal, Urooj Aijaz, Dr. Hina Shafiq, Naila Mushtaq, Khalid Khan, Fawad Rauf, Humza Qureshi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 373-402
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.024

By the year 2025 over half of the global growth will be contributed by 577 “middle weight” cities in the top 600 and the vast majority of them will be in emerging economies, and two-thirds from Chinese and Indian cities. Accordingly, “Urbanization and economic growth are strongly associated, hence, urban areas, in general, and cities, in particular, have been identified as the “Engine of Growth”, and “Agent of Change” (Mohan and Das Gupta, 2005). Cities evolve multiplicity of opportunities that allow individuals and communities to come together and exercise multifarious activities. The concept of “creative-cities” is rapidly attracting the interest of academician and policy makers. By 2020, over 60 percent of the China’s population will be  living in cities. It is estimated, that, by 2050, about 67 percent of the world’s population will be city dwellers (6.3 billion people). This would be 8.3 billion people by the early 22nd century. Cities produce over 80 percent of the world’s GDP and, 60 percent of the world’s GDP is being generated by top 600 cities with 25 percent of the world’s population. Such high economic density reflects the vital role of cities as the main source of productivity. There has been no systematic research exists in the country to identify the relative importance of the “Key drivers of city competitiveness. Present endeavor, for the first in Pakistan, an exploration in this direction.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 403-409
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.025

Consumer perception plays a major role in buying behaviour. Studies show that India has
more rural user internet than urban uses. Hence there is huge space for e-commerce
business in rural area. The aim of the study is to understand the perception of rural
consumer of digital market in karamadai -Coimbatore district. To analysis this study we
have used multipliable regression technic. The result comprises of factors that encourage
and discourage the rural consumers to use online shopping, we have also given few

Ratiocination over Deliberations in the Fiction of Trio- Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal with special velleity towards relational complexity and ethnocentric intricacy

Dr. Jaya Sharma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 410-418
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.026

This paper attempts to analyze how the trio Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal
etch fragile human relationship in the wake of contemporary maladies creeping in the society.
Attenuated emotional bonds, urge for more space, patriarchal subjugation, rifts in understanding
eclipse conjugal harmony and nuptial relations. The trio has chosen to give voice to entangled
man-woman relations, incompatibility in marriages, cultural ethnocentrism resulting in marital
disharmony, alienation, estrangement, East-west Encounter, Identity Crisis, Familial nuances,
Pseudo modernism in Indian society, social life and marital dissonance and feministic seclusion.
Draught of female manifestations in Indian English Literature culminates with the foray of Anita
Desai, Ruth Jhabwala, Kamla Markandey, Sudha Murthy, Jhumpa Lahiri, Chitra Bannerjee,
Kiran Desai, Nergis Dalal etc. who dribbled it with the clear stream of their expressions. The
initiation of female authors enlarged the dimension by giving voice to untold miseries, unheard
experiences and unwritten encounters. Disparate streams of the works of the three contemporary
writers Nergis Dalal, Anita Desai and Ruth Jhabwala sometimes sparkle with the streak of same
themes manifested in different style

Design and Analysis of ZSI based DVR for Improving the Voltage profile


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 419-429
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.027

The principle objective of this task is to protect sensitive weights from voltage droops or expands with Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) utilizing VSI and ZSI. The Z-source inverters which have been actually proposed as an elective force change thought crushes the sensible and speculative obstacles and limitations of the standard voltage-source converter and current-source converter and gives a novel force change thought. Here the assessment is made between the display of DVR using VSI and ZSI. The sinusoidal condition of the yield voltage paying little notice to the load type is kept up by this voltage control system.

Does Exchange Rate Regime, Political Stability, and Capital Controls Influence the Currency Crisis

Zia U llah; Tan Xiao Fen; Fayaz Husain Tunio; Imran U llah

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 430-451
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.028

This study used the probit models to examine the relationship between exchange rate regime,
political stability, and capital controls on currency crises. Dataset is based on 1996 to 2020 over
the currency crisis episodes in 23 high-income countries and 25 middle-income countries, and
the total observation annually is 1200. Recent empirical studies have mixed results and argue
that the relationship is expectedto depend on capital controls and political stability both with the
exchange rate. The analysis providesimpressive results for fixed exchange rate and capital
controls are negatively associated with crisis,significantly less stable governments. The results
strongly support that floating exchange rate and (open) economies are negatively associated with
crises and lower the risk of crisis, remarkably more stable political governments. (Open)
economies and floating exchange rates are positively associated with a currency crisis and more
prone to a currency crisis, exceptionally less stable political governments.


Hoang Xuan Binh, Khamkeo Manivong, Hoang Thi Hoa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 452-469
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.029

The objective of this study is to examine the spillover effects of foreign direct
investment (FDI) on domestic firms in Savannakhet province, Laos. The author uses the fixed
effects model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM) with the help of Eviews software and
Hausman test to analyze the spillover effects of FDI on domestic firms. in Savannakhet province
in the period 2013-2018. Table I-O 2018 is used to structure the relationship between domestic
firms and FDI enterprises through the horizontal and vertical spillover effect of FDI on domestic
firms. With the data set of sectors from 2013 to 2018, the author estimated the impact of FDI on
production and business activities of FDI enterprises. The result of this study is that there is
empirical evidence of the effect of the spillover effect of FDI on domestic firms in Savannakhet



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 470-491
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.030

Around 20 ambulance services operated in Karachi; however, the network of Edhi, Chhipa
and Aman ambulance services provides the bulk of patient transport. The study aims to
compare the quality of ambulance service delivery with international standards. With a mixmethod
approach, 357 patients/attendants and key stakeholders participated in the study. The
results revealed a wide range of differences in service quality. Aman services delivery quality
is rated 72% compliant, but it constitutes less than 20% of the share of inpatient
transportation due to limited ambulances while Edhi and Chhipa contribute 80% of patient
transportation, but their service delivery quality is rated only 13%. In the subset of
monitoring, infection control, and medicine, Edhi & Chhipa services meet 0% standards. The
thematic analysis revealed that the primary reasons for the poor quality are lack of legislation
& minimum standards, Poor or no monitoring, financial constraints, and lack of awareness. In
conclusion, the ambulances services operating in the city lacks minimum service quality
standards, thus pose a constant threat to patient life using these services.

Application of Reciprocal Law in Returning Assets Resulting from Corruption

Helex Wirawan, Ismet Ismet

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 492-516
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.031

One of the unresolved legal issues in Indonesia is corruption. The problem of law enforcement is not yet optimal so that the assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption which are often more than national territory make it difficult to return. Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, abbreviated as MLA, which is expected to help law enforcement is not yet optimal. Indonesia, as a participant country of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), does not yet have a regulatory framework that comprehensively regulates the aspects recommended by the convention. This study aims to find out about efforts and mechanisms to optimize the role of MLA in the recovery of assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption in Indonesia, especially those abroad. This research is normative juridical research conducted by library research and interviews with informants related to the legislation and comparison approach. This article concludes that optimizing the role of MLA requires several steps such as implementing MLA in a more detailed technical format, optimizing the role of law enforcementas the implementer, and adopting the concept of Non-Conviction Based Asset Forfeiture (NCB).


V.N. Abdullabekova, N.A. Abdullabekova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 517-525
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.032

The article presents the results of identification of volatile substances, as well as macro and microelement composition of fruits "Sophorajaponica L.", cultivated in Tashkent using the method of chromatomass spectroscopy on an Agilent 7890 AGS gas chromatograph, as well as mass spectral analysis using a mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma ICP MS (inductivelycoupledplasmamass-spectrometerAgilentTechnology 7500). As a result of the studies carried out in the fruits of Sophorajaponica L., the content of α-pinene (in hexane - 26.67%, in benzene - 12.93%), eucalyptol (in hexane - 17.23%, in benzene - 9.45%) and camphor (in hexane - 4.5%, in benzene - 2.49%), and the most significant macro- and microelements were found, among which potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron predominate in quantitative terms, chrome, copper and zinc.

Impact Of Electronic Marketing Tools, And Electronic Word Of Mouth On Online Purchase Intention: Empirical Study On University Students In Tabuk

Hebatalla Mohsen Mohammed Abd el baki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 526-568
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.033

This paper aims to study impactof electronic marketing tools, and electronic word of
mouth on online purchase intention: empirical study on university Students in Tabuk, and
also aim to study the different tools of Electronic marketing. The objective of this study is
To examine the impact of E M tools on online purchase intention, the study aims to
examine the impact of E W O M on online purchase intention, andto find out what is the
most effective tool of E M impact on online purchase intention.The study was conducted
in University of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia , the research hypotheses was adopted based on
the previous studies, and Based on variables of the study . The researcher used the
descriptive analytical method; The Data was collected through Field research
(questionnaire) among 120 respondents. The results show there was a positive
correlation between electronic marketing tools and online purchase intention among
university students. This study recommends that companies should move away from
conventional marketing techniques and inculcate electronic marketing into their marketing
plans in order to better stay connected with customer

Circular economic development in Vietnam


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 569-576
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.034

In Vietnam, economic activity has so far been mainly based on the traditional approach,
which is linear economy. This is also the basic cause leading to the shortage of natural resources and
especially causing serious environmental pollution. In order to realize rapid and sustainable
development, to harmoniously deal with the relationship between economic growth and environmental
protection, to "do not trade off" economic growth with environmental pollution and degradation, to
switch to an eco-friendly economy. circular economy is the right direction. However, this
transformation requires seizing the opportunities and accepting the challenges that need to be overcome.
The article analyzes opportunities and challenges of circular economy development and proposes
solutions to promote circular economy development for Vietnam in the coming time.

A literature Investigation on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Wisdom


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 577-584
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.035

The COVID-19 pandemic has made the biggest disturbance of schooling frameworks in
mankind's set of experiences, influencing almost 1.6 billion students in excess of 200 nations.
Terminations of schools, foundations and other learning spaces have affected over 94% of the
world's understudy populace. This has brought expansive changes in all parts of our lives. Social
separating and prohibitive development strategies have fundamentally upset customary
instructive practices. Resuming of schools after unwinding of limitation is another test with
numerous new standard working strategies set up.
Inside a limited ability to focus the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous scientists have shared their
deals with instructing and learning in an unexpected way. A few schools, schools and colleges
have stopped eye to eye lessons. There is a dread of losing 2020 scholastic year or considerably
more in the coming future. The need of great importance is to enhance and execute elective
instructive framework and evaluation procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic has given us a
chance to make ready for presenting computerized learning. This article intends to give a far
reaching report on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on web based educating and learning of
different papers and show the route forward.

The Effects of verbal and nonverbal Ostracism on employee interpersonal work behavior

Muhammad Irshad, Dr. Muhammad Arif, Dr. Munir Hussain

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 585-600
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.036

Employee interpersonal behaviors play a vital role in the performance of any organization. If this
behavior of the employee is positive it will boost up the performance of the organization
otherwise it will completely lower the performance of the organization. The behavior of the
employee is mainly affected by the behavior of other employees who are working with them.
When a person or group of people fails to engage another organizational member when it is
socially necessary to do so, it is referred to as workplace ostracism. There are two main
dimensions of workplace ostracism which are verbal and nonverbal ostracism. The purpose of
this study is to investigate the effect of verbal and nonverbal ostracism on employee
interpersonal deviance behavior in the public sector organizations of Balochistan. This study also
aims to examine the moderating role of social self-efficacy on the relationship between verbal
and verbal ostracism and inter-personal deviance behavior. The nature of this study is
quantitative so used the deductive approach. Primary data was collected by a closed-ended
questionnaire from the 103 permanent employees of the public sector organization of
Balochistan who speak a mother tongue other than the local language of that area. The data
analysis technique was PLS-SEM done by the PLS Smart. From the results of this study it was
found that both verbal and nonverbal ostracism will create a Disidentification in the employee
which leads them to interpersonal deviance behavior.

CPEC and Capacity of Banking Sector

Madiha Kamal Hina Shafiq Dr.Muhammad Asif Shamim Dr. Sanam Wagma Khattak Naila Mushtaq Khalid Khan Kumail Asghar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 601-618
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.037

China-Pakistan economic corridor is the potential project that enhances local connectivity,
industrialization, financial cooperation, trade and commerce, infrastructure, tourism, the
solidity of the region and so on and so forth. It is beneficial for not only Pakistan and China
but will have the constructive impact on Afghanistan, Iran, India and the linked region. On
one hand CPEC is opening great opportunities for Pakistan to flourish their business,
industries, and trade, but on the other hand, it is also a challenge for Pakistan in many aspects
of law and order situation, regional conflicts, local financing and capacity of the banking
sector. In this report, the capacity of the banking sector of Pakistan is deeply analyzed with
the stances of different banks on CPEC and what role State Bank is playing in this venture.
Further, this report critically analyzes the problems banking sector is currently facing and
what measure they can take to overcome issues and invest in CPEC projects actively

An Assessment of Training and Its Effectiveness on Employees’ Job Performance”: A Critical Review on The Banking Sector of Ethiopia


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 619-626
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.038

With the current expansion of the global economy and the fast-changing of technology and innovation, Effectiveness Training is necessary for any organization especially in connection with new technology.  The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of training on employees’ job performance in Hawassa City, in order to examine the study data was collected through a self-administered structured questionnaire from a population of 195 employees from various branches of the Banking sector in Hawassa city.  The data collected was analyzed using frequency, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and regression analysis. Regression results indicate that effectiveness training it positively and significantly contributes towards employees’ job performance.  Based on the finding of the study the researcher forwarded some recommendations the management of the CBE.


Adnan Ahmed , Dr Muhammed Arif

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 627-643
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.039

This study identifies critical factors which have influence employee retention in the fastfoodpolicies
in these organizations to retain staff at the floor level.Overall, the results give a
fresh insight into the topic of retention industry. It adds to research studies on similar topics by
exploring critical factors which have not been a regular part of the research, such as supervisor
support and job security. Instead of taking employee turnover intention, this study takes a more
direct approach by using the retention of employees as a dependent variable. The study confirms
through quantitative analysis that three independent variables – Job Satisfaction, Brand Image,
and Job Security have a significant impact on employee retention. In an unusual result, two other
independent variables – Career Development and Supervisor Support have been found to have an
insignificant impact on the employee retention in the fast-food industry. These results have been
validated through online interviews with an Industry Specialist and a Food Researcher.Based on
this study, it is recommended that Operations staff should have their jobs enriched with regular
transfers to other areas like Finance, Marketing, and Purchasing. There is also an urgent need to
reenergize the motivational levelof employees in the fast-food industry in Pakistan.

Impacts of the Free Trade Agreement on Pakistan Export to China and Economic Growth

Khalid Rahamdil; LIU Chunsheng; Faryal Salman;Fayaz Hussain Tunio, Naveed Khan; Agha Amad Nabi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 644-662
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.040

The Free Trade Agreements between Pakistan and China increased the trade prospects
between Pakistan China, resulting in an increased trade deficit in Pakistan with China. The
study is based onhow the FTAs impact exports in Pakistan. This paper's results suggest a
positive contribution of FTAs to Pakistan's exports in China's economy and the imports from
China. However, the increase in imports is much higher than the increase in exports after
Pakistan entered into subsequent FTAs with China. As a result, there is an increase in the
Pakistan trade deficit, and the growth prospects of Pakistan suffered. The constant
marketsuggests that,by focusing on products that enhance
Pakistan'scomparativeadvantage,improving infrastructure, efficient tariff line utilization, and
deep understanding of China's market, all are necessary for Pakistan to benefit from FTAs;
otherwise, their provision becomes counterproductive. It is concluded that Pakistan needs to
reduce the trade deficit with China as it negatively impacts its macroeconomic situation.
Exports enhanced by investing in innovative technologies andreduced importsthrough
production inland.

Environmental analysis and its role in the success of the " organization " An analytical exploratory study in the Directorate of Water Resources / Babylon

Prof. Dr Nayef Ali Assi, Hameed Jassem

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 663-674
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.041

The research aims to know the role of environmental analysis by its dimensions (analysis of the
internal environment, analysis of the external environment) in the success of the organization by its
dimensions (efficiency of operations, attention to the customer, possession of resources, good
management). The questionnaire was used as a method for collecting data, and a random sample of
(50) individuals was chosen from the Water Resources Directorate / Babil. The research was based
on two measures that were developed by the researcher based on the research literature and the
nature and environment of the research and were subjected to validity and reliability tests. For the
purpose of achieving the research objectives, the research was formulated. Two main hypotheses
were tested by several statistical means using the ready-made statistical program (SPSS Var 22).
The research concluded that there is an important impact of environmental analysis on the success
of the organization.

Investigating the Business Performance of Public and Private Banks Based on Professional Ethics Management Model (Case Study: Northwestern Banks of Iran)

Sodeif Bagheri Dabanlou, Shahram Mirzaei Daryani, Ishaq Rasouli, Mohammad Rouhi Issa Lou, Habib Ebrahimpour

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 675-692
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.042

The purpose of this study is to investigate the business performance of public and private banks
based on the professional ethics management model in northwestern banks in Iran. The present
study was descriptive in terms of performance, quantitative-qualitative in terms of
implementation method and cross-sectional in terms of time. The methods of data collection for
compiling the theoretical foundations and research literature and backgrounds were library and
the method of data collection was survey. First, by studying the sources, indicators related to
professional ethics were extracted, and then, to measure and evaluate the situation of public and
private banks, questionnaires of regulation and distribution were collected. The statistical
population of the study includes branch experts in the northwestern region of the country, which
is 2249 in the public banking system and 1566 in the private banking system. The sample size of
branch experts in the northwestern region is 134 for the state banking system and 94 for the
private banking system. Due to the unlimited number of customers, 384 customers were selected
as the statistical population, of which 192 people were selected from each bank.
The CVR for professional ethics management and business performance promotion
questionnaires was 0.73 and 0.60, respectively. The results showed that Cronbach's alpha
coefficient for both questionnaires is more than 0.7. Exploratory factor analysis, correlation and
t-test were used to evaluate the results. The results showed that there is a relationship between
management based on professional ethics and business performance from the respondents' point
of view and the level of belief in professional ethics management in private banks was higher
than government banks.

The Relationship in Accrual Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management in Context of Pakistan.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 693-719
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.043

This study focus on trade-off decision between earnings management strategies. For
this purpose AEM measured through the modified jones model (1991) and Kathoriet
al.,(2005)model and REM is captured through four measurements of Roychowdhury model
(2006). The sample is based on non-financial firms that are listed on PSX from 2007 to 2018 that
further divided and adopt those firms that suspects to enjoying EM incentives. For
analysispurpose we use panel data and our model is Zang (2012) model. The findingsapprove
that AEM have no switching relationship with any measurement of earnings management except
abnormal production cost. The unexpected REM measurement of production cost showsa
substitution effect. But, in this model also IFRS adoption does not play a role to control
switching choices between EM strategies. Overall, not all, but a few factors such as; firm status,
financial health of company and marginal tax rate show predicted directional relationship in
AEM models.

Critical Review of Deep Learning Algorithms for Plant Diseases by Leaf Recognition

M. Jaithoon Bibi, Dr. S.Karpagavalli, A. Kalaivani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 720-729
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.044

The identification and classification of the crop leaf diseases plays an essential role in the
cultivation. Plants are the livelihood. Peoples depend entirely on crops for the breathing of
their daily lives. Thus, suitable crop caring should take place. Most research suggests that
the quality of agricultural commodities can be restricted depending on different factors. Crop
diseases include microorganisms and pathogens. The leaf diseases not only reduce crop
growth, the cultivation is also destroyed. Several researchers have been identified crop
leaf diseases using image processing algorithms but it take more time for detection.
Therefore, advanced algorithms are required to identify and classify the crop leaf diseases
automatically with higher accuracy. There are different deep learning algorithms using crop
leaf images developed for automatically detecting the crop leaf diseases in an efficient
manner. In this article, a survey on different deep learning algorithms using image processing
for detecting and classifying the crop or plant leaf diseases is presented. Also, the merits and
demerits of the surveyed algorithms for crop leaves diseases identification are addressed in a
tabular form. Finally, a comprehensive analysis is concluded and future directions are
suggested to increase the accuracy of leaf diseases classification.

State and development trends of the quality of the population in Uzbekistan

Mukhamedova Sevara Abdukakhkhorovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 730-740
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.045

The article developed a system of indicators that determine the standard of living of the
population of Uzbekistan, scientific proposals and practical recommendations for their
calculation. Practical application of the developed scientific proposals and practical
recommendations. In the future, Uzbekistan will develop scientific proposals and practical
recommendations aimed at improving the living standards of the population through their active
use to improve the level and quality of life.

Short-term open innovation hackathons as a method to improve tourism innovation

Lucía Santana Cerdeña, Jose P. Suárez Rivero

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 741-753
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.046

This article has as objective the use case study applied by Lopesan Hotel Group,
the Hackathon Think in Innovation; whose goal was to promote Open Innovation in the hotel
group, providing solutions to the challenges identified by the organization and promoting the
creation of an innovative culture within the company. The evaluation results of the
participants during two editions (years 2015 and 2016) are analyzed, amounting to a total of
94 surveys. Likewise, the benefits and the reasons why the format have not been continued
by the hotel group are exposed. In general, the format has given Lopesan Hotel Group
recognition as an innovative brand, generating a rich source of future projects to develop
internally or externally.

English for Specific Purposes

Ibragimova Dildora Shamsiddinovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 754-758
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.047

English for architects is perhaps the most neglected kind of ESP (English for Specific Purposes).
Architects need English for all kinds of reasons, and your first job as a teacher and/or course
designer will be to work out what they are and which are priorities. The aims to find out the
effectiveness of architectural drawings in teachingEnglish vocabulary . The media applied in the
research worked in both improving Architecture-major students’ ability to learn the target
language and motivating them in the teaching-learning process. A questionnaires analysis was
used to determine factors affecting students’ lack ofEnglish vocabulary. The quasi-experimental
method was applied to acquire the test data needed. Based on the analysis, the findings showed
that there was a significant success on improving the students’ vocabulary mastery. However, as
the architectural drawings used in the research were limited on the presentation type of drawing,
other kinds of architectural drawings may not result in the similar way.

The Role of Husamuddin Sadr Shahid and Husamuddin Al-Ahsikati's Scientific Heritage in Islamic Jurisprudence

Ilhomjon Bekmirzaev, Dildora Nishanova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 759-777
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.048

The scientific heritage of two great Central Asian scholars, Husamuddin Sadr Shahid
and Husamuddin al-Akhsikati, is of great importance to the Islamic Jurisprudence. An in-depth
study of the scientific and spiritual heritage left by the faqihs of the Oli Moza family from
Bukhara is one of the important tasks facing researchers today. This paper will detail the works
and scientific heritage of Husamuddin Sadr Shahid (473/1090–536/1141), a great representative
of the Ali Moza family and one of the famous Hanafi jurists, and his contemporary fellow,
Husamuddin al-Akhsikati.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 778-784
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.049

The study of the skills, style and originality of the critic is one of the most important and urgent
problems of literary criticism. While the issue of the writer's style has been studied in Uzbek
literature, the issue of the style and skill of the critics has been neglected. Therefore, in our study,
we aimed to study the unique style and skills of critics. In this regard, in this article we present
our views on the style and skill of the great literary critic I. Hakkulov and critic I. Gafurov. Th


Bahrom Karimov Djalolovich, Ernazarov Azim Xudoyqulovich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 785-790
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.050

45 versts (1verst-1.06 km) to thesouth-eastofKarshi is thecityof Guzar, thecenterofthe Guzar principality, whose geographicallocation is on thehills on  thewesternslopeoftheGissarmountainrange. [1, -663] Theprincipalityof Guzar is bordered on thenorthbytheupperreachesoftheGreatUradarya, on theeastbytheGreatUradaryaandtheeastern part ofKirshaktog, and on thewestby 35-40 latitudes. TheQuyitangRiver, whichflowsthroughthewestern part oftheprincipality, is considered to betheborderoftheprincipalitiesof Guzar andKelif. Theeastern, southernandwesternpartsofthe Guzar principalityconsistofmountainousareasfoundOnlythenorth-western part oftheprincipality, iethe part bordering on theKarshiprincipality, consistedof a plain. In the 19th century, theborderbetweentheprincipalitiesof Guzar andKarshibegan in thevillageofYangikent, which is locatedatanaltitudeof 1,150 feet (1ft-30.48 cm) abovesealevel. Theheightofthemountains in theeasternandsouth-eastern part ofthe Guzar principalitywas 2200-2400 feet.² [2, -154]Thecityof Guzar, thecenterofthe Guzar principality, hasbeenmentionedmanytimes in manyhistoricalworksabout Hazrat Amir Temur, fromSharafiddin Ali Yazdi's "Zafarnoma" to Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur's "Boburnoma". [3, -7]

Emotional Intelligence Competencies Developed Through Raja Yoga Meditation: A Study of Women in National Capital Region of India

Prachi Rohatgi, Dr. Manju Singh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 791-804
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.051

Brahma Kumaris Sahaj Raja Yoga Meditation is a simple yet practical techniqueto bring the
mental peace and inner harmony in today’s chaotic times. The research on the practices of
such techniques has shown that, they are great help in thestress management and in the
prevention of many of the psychosomaticdiseases. Raj Yoga is the highest yoga that
empowers the self to rule the mind, sense-organs and the body. It is based on the Prajapati
Brahma Kumarie’s school of thought. There are several psychological benefits incurred by
Raja yoga which have not been highlighted due to scarcity of scientific studies.The present
study examined the effect of Raja Yoga Meditation practice on emotional intelligence of
women who’s emotional and behavioural responses varied on the basis of Biopsychosocial
factors. Especially in Indian society women’s mental health is affected mainly due to male
chauvinism culture.A large no of women population is still not open for their emotional
expression which is not a true definition of ‘women empowerment’ in contemporary times.
Mere legislative governance will not help in this, women need to feel freedom at core level.
The paper is based on primary data collected through field survey of 600 women from NCR
region of India Results suggest that the group practicing Raja Yoga had significantly less
emotional disturbance and able to manage their emotions well in comparison to the group not
practicing Raja Yoga Meditation

Current Situation and Prospects of Regional Development in Mongolia: On the Example of the Eastern Region

Sarangerel Dashnyam, Baljinnyam Gungaa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 821-832
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.053

The concentration of population, production and services in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, has led to increasing economic inequality in the capital city and regional and rural areas and widening urban-rural disparitiesalthough thecountry’s economy has been growing in recent years. 46 percent of the total population of the country (1,463,000) and 64.2 percent (50,467)of the active business entities and organizations [1] are concentrated in the capital city. Stimulating the local economy and ensuring sustainable growth in the medium and long termis necessary to reduce this concentration and development disparity. Therefore, it is crucial to analyze the needs and develop regional development policies and strategies.As the regional development policy is the primary policy to implement all Mongolia's sustainable development policies at the local level, regional and provincial development issues are significant.Mongolian regional development level is measured by regional economic growth, inflation, budget, investment, and key indicators of certain sectors of the economy such as population, density, births, deaths, migration, unemployment, poverty and human development index. 

Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Organisational Commitment in Higher Educational Institutions in Haryana


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 833-849
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.054

The objective of the paper is to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment among the employees of the higher educational institutions in Haryana. A structured questionnaire is used to assess emotional intelligence and organisational commitment.  Participants of the study included 350 employees working in higher education institutions in Haryana, India. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to validate the scales and structural equation modeling is used to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment using AMOS 21. It is concluded that emotional intelligence is positively associated with organisational commitment. Employees with strong emotional intelligence have greater levels of organisational commitment.

Micro Credit from Zakah Fund in Baitul Mal Aceh : An Analysis from Law

Nurul Ilyana Muhd Adnan, Hafizuddin Muhd Adnan, Nurul Izwah Muhd Adnan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 850-862
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.055

The purpose of this article is to analyze the theoretical distribution of zakah funds to zakah recipients in form of micro credit. The micro-credit zakah distribution is the act of distributing zakah to the asnaf in the form of capital financing. The micro-credit zakah is given to asnaf who want to start a new business or to expand their business. It is questionnable, is there any provision of law that allows zakah to be distributed in the form of micro credit in Baitul Mal Aceh? Based on the findings in the analysis show that the Provision of Indonesian Law No. 38 Year 1999 regarding Zakah Management is not used in Aceh. This is because Aceh government has its own autonomous power. Despite that,there is a Law No. 44 Year 1999,which is the enforcement of law to give a Special Privileges of Aceh Province. Aceh is given the privilege to implement Islamic law in the life of its Muslim people, including issues of zakah distribution.

Resource Integration process in Complex Service Systems: Examining Value Co-Creation at Higher Education Institutions


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 863-877
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.056

This article aims to provide empirical insights on how value co-creation takes place in complex systems; portraying insights from the evolving and complex interaction-based resource integration at HEIs. Tenets of service dominant (S-D) logic (Vargo & Lusch, 2004, 2008)  and service science (Maglio & Spohrer, 2008) are used to conceptualize the resource integration process for value co-creation. Multiple Qualitative case studies are used to explore rich experiences of actors during instances of service interactions in higher education institutions (HEIs) and empirical findings are generated from 37 in-depth interviews, observations and web page analysis. The analysis process and findings from the data are systematically displayed using the GIOIA methodology (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013). Empirical findings suggested that achievement of sustainable learning outcomes at HEIs requires management of complex interactions that are embedded within diverse yet dependent systems as value is generated through an iterative resource integration process within the overall engagement phase of value co-creation. Furthermore, deliberate replications on key resource integrating practices between human actors and digital systems are discussed to provide clues on interplay of social and technical influences on value co-creation processes. Results could foster expansion of the value co-creation concept and pave way for its operationalization in complex service system settings. Conceptualization of resource integration practices could also guide key stakeholders at HEIs to identify major challenges during value co-creation initiatives. Implications are discussed in the light of roles played by human and digital actors during three critical phases of value co-creation in expedience, engagement and evolution. Acknowledging the fact that opportunities and issues faced by higher education institutions might be like many other industries including tourism, public service, nursing and others; yet aim of using the case studies for in depth insights in this paper limits the statistical generalizability.


Sarwat Jahan,Shadi Hijazi,Wissale Mahdaoui

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 878-897
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.057

Teaching is an art, where the teacher communicates his knowledge using several teaching styles,
which facilitates in ensuring that students are presented with an overall learning environment that
can further promote their academic achievements and excellence. Though, this has remained the
centre of attention for decades, but still studies have frequently overlooked the student’s
perspectives that have left a void in the literature.For the very reason, the current investigation
has shed light on the role of teaching styles in driving quality of student learning and
achievement, where the study has been exclusively limited to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. For
the current investigation, the study has presented the qualitative information collected from 10
students based on interpretivism philosophy as it has helped to ensure that the findings of the
study are critical in nature, while assuring that the topic of interest (i.e. the role of teacher’s style
of students’ achievement, and the provision of quality learning environment) is sufficiently
addressed. Considering the latter, the study has considered the use of thematic analysis for the
information collected through interviews, where themes were formulated based on the common
findings. In reference to the findings, the study has found that teaching style refers to the
reasonable combination and application of skills formed by a teacher in long-term teaching
practice, which reflects the consistent and stable teaching psychological quality of teachers. In
addition, the study also found that students have preferred humorous and rational teaching styles,
as the former focuses on two-way communication to keep the classroom atmosphere quite
entertaining; whereas the latter focuses upon giving the students a feeling of being relaxed, calm
and peaceful environment, where logic prevails over other elements. Hence, both of the teaching
styles were found to yield better academic grades and overall achievement of students in their
respective domain as they are facilitated to learn in a unique environment.

Growing Fashion Consciousness; A Threat to Environment

Abdur Rehman Arif, Arman Khan, Shumaila Jabbar,Ali Akbar Pirzado,Alle Syeda,Waseem Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 898-910
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.058

The Study stands on an assumption that growing fashion consciousness leads towards a
general change oriented behavior and so escort towards an intense consumption pattern. To
fulfill that huge demand of all kinds, massive industrialization takes place, which is evidently
a threat to the environment. Study ascertains the fashion consciousness of only the most
neglected segment of the market to establish that people are getting fashion conscious to a
threatening level. This study identifies the fashion information sources, shopping preferences
and in particular, measures the fashion consciousness of the underappreciated segment as
mature female consumers in Pakistan. A comprehensive questionnaire is exposed to the
females aging 45 to onwards who were explained with every question in order to ensure the
validity of the instrument. It is found that mature women are fashion conscious but not as
much as they share information of fashion. Mature women are more concerned about comfort
than style and more concerned about style than brand name, which is a clear evidence of lack
of advertisement and focus of businesses on this wealthy and independent segment. Even then,
they are fashion conscious and acquire fashion information through catalogues, store display,
fashion shows, asking family members, and social gatherings. This amplifying fashion
consciousness leads to a change oriented behavior in general. People seek change in
everything around (even before it expiries) which will obviously generate innovative demands
and in result, industrialization will be at its peak; an obvious threat to the environment.

Observer’s congruent response when boss put their colleague’s down, A moderated mediation mechanism

Maria Rasheed, Dr. Farooq Anwar, Tayyab Ali, Ahmed Abdul Hameed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 911-926
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.059

Prior research mostly covers the instigator and target perspective of workplace incivility and
overlooked the third parties’ reaction. The current research aims to examine the congruent social
emotion of the observer after witnessing the incivility toward coworkers with the lens of
affective event theory. It also examines the behavioral response of the observer due to that social
emotion. Through the time-lagged survey conducted in the service industry, the results showed
that vicarious workplace incivility was positively associated with empathy towards a coworker,
that emotion is further positively associated with helping behavior towards victims. This
relationship is moderated by gender, such that females are more sensitive towards incivility.
Third parties experience positive social emotions of empathy and try to buffer the situation
through helping behavior. Our findings try to examine the interpersonal, target -directed
outcomes of vicarious workplace incivility. The results of the study contribute to both theory and

Property Investment in Kurdistan (Iraqi Kurdistan): A Case Study of Kurdistan Region of Iraq, from 2003-2020

Ranjdar Mustafa Ali, NawzadMajeed Hamawandy, Abdulkhaleq Nader Qader, Raed Mohammed Kakil

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 927-936
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.060

The construction of housing in Kurdistan has changed the face of major cities throughout the
region. Since 2003, sudden developments have seen ample structural components and massive
housing projects that have transformed their towns'' landscape. The increase in housing demand,
a booming economy, economic growth rates in the region, relative safety in Kurdistan have
fueled certain dimensions of Kurdistan''s development, causing many people from nearby
neighborhoods of Kurdistan to migrate into the region. This has required an increase in
employment opportunities from housing projects'' development and their ability to afford to
house (Doski, 2015, p. 18). The number of foreign and local businesses recruiting from the
current workers has been growing. The real estate boom that has engulfed Kurdistan since the
independence of Iraq in 2003 has been one of the drivers of such economic development in
Kurdistan. It can be anticipated that this growth will extend into the southern and central regions
of Iraq once the security environment there is secure. Travel participation has also helped boost
the Kurdistan''s economic development. The road infrastructure has also been expanded and
improved. New roads have been established, and Erbil International Airport will get a brand new
terminal with one of the world''s longest runways.


Rabia Mian, ChaudhryAbdul Rehman, Muhammad Rafiq, Sobia Nasir

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 937-945
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.061

Knowledge sharing is an important aspect of knowledge management and it is important and
progressively recognized for international business management. The aim of this study to
examine the impact of knowledge sharing tools (technology and organization rewards) on
knowledge transfer in the education sector of Pakistan Punjab. The survey method is used to
collect the data from public and private university employees from Punjab, Pakistan. By Using
the cluster random sampling method, the results of the structural equation model (SEM) and inter
reliability reveals the existence of internal reliability and validity of construct with a sample of
750. Results of the research work indicate that knowledge-sharing tools organization rewards
and technology have a significant impact on knowledge transfer. The results of the study also
confirm that motivation mediates the relationship among organization reward, technology, and
knowledge transfer. Furthermore, the organization reward and technology along with motivation
endorse the knowledge transfer to individuals and organizations. This study work contributed in
managerial and theatrical by considering technology and organization reward is knowledge
sharing tool effect on knowledge transfer with mediation analysis of motivation which improves
the organization effectiveness. The comparative study may be conducted in the future or in
another region of the country.

An Insight into the Needs Analysis of the Mobile Language Traveller App Design For Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) Via Mobile Platforms During COVID-19 Outbreak

Muhammad Sabri Sahrir, Taufik Ismail,Mohd Firdaus Yahaya,Muhamad AzharZubir

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 946-961
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.062

The teaching and learning of the Arabic language have been using traditional methods and
textbooks for a very long time. The language has been used and taught for various reasons
including communication purpose. However, in this era of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT), the needs to produce the interactive and technology-based learning and
teaching tools have been the area of research by various fields of knowledge. Hence, the huge
use of mobile gadgets as Tablet PC, smartphones, I-Pads and so on has the learners to adapt
with the mobile revolution in their learning preference of various educational application
such as many Apps that are available in Google Store. This project will be focusing on the
design and development of a mobile language guide application in Arabic language for
Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) VIA smart phones especially in Android supported
platforms. Once completed, the project is expected to produce a mobile App of teaching and
learning Arabic among Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) via interactive mobile App prototype,
which could enhance the learners’ self-motivation and language learning for traveller’s

Social Distancing Effect on Workspace Nature and HRM: Evidence from Egypt and GCC

Osama Wagdi, Walid Abouzeid

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 962-993
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.063

This study investigates the practices of human resources management
(HRM) in Egypt and the Gulf Cooperation Council through the integration of
quantitative data (social distancing in the workplace) and qualitative data (attitude
toward altering the workplaces nature and human resources practices) using a survey
of 140 HRM personnel from seven nations. The study found that social distancing
explains 54% of the change in workplace nature, while social distancing and the
change in workplaces nature explain 32% of the change in HRM practices. However,
there is a distinction in the extent to which the characteristics of job location have
changed, as the number of people is a variable for HRM practices due to
COVID-19, with training needs and training tools changing the most during the
COVID-19 pandemic.


Ghulam Rasool Lakhan, Bahadur Ali Soomro, Amanullah Channa,Ifrah Jameel, Shabbir Ahmed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 994-1005
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.064

In the present era, the COVID-19 appeared as a dangerous virus that ruined all most
all economies of the globe. The present paper attempts to review the economic
problems and uncertainties that affected the Pakistani economy in the COVID-19
pandemic waves. The study is based on a desk review. The data are derived from
reliable sources to achieve the purpose of the study. The study's findings suggest that
the economy of Pakistan has confronted significant challenges in the pandemic. These
problems include economic and financial problems, business problems and firms
operating problems. Besides, the study provides evidence about the impact of
COVID-19 on revenue and employment within the firms of Pakistan.Furthermore, the
study's findings would provide some guidelines about the problems that exist in the
pandemic. Therefore, the government of Pakistan must take initiatives if any
pandemic may appear. Finally, the study may provide the summarized insights into
the economy of Pakistan, particularly concerning economics.

The effects of a training course in non-verbal communication skills of Iranian dental students

Sepideh Falah-Kooshki , Ahmad Sheibaninia , Jahanfar Jahanbani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1006-1018
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.065

Materials and Methods: Inthisclinicaltrial,77dental-schoolstudentsout of 104 samples whohadlessthan80%ofcommunicationskills’indicatorswereincludedandrandomlyallocatedintoexperimentalandcontrolgroups.The ones receiving more than 80 % were excluded from the study. Studentsallocatedtotheexperimentalgroupwereeducatedfor1hourincommunicationindicators,whilethecontrolgroupreceivednotraining.After2weeks,thecommunicationskillsofbothgroupswereevaluatedby 10 indicators whenworkingwithrealpatients.The evaluator, proficient in NVC skills, was blinded as to the groups.TheresultswereanalyzedbyMann-WhitneyUandFischerexacttestusingSPSSversion23.
Results:Bothgroupssharedsimilarstatisticsbeforestartingthecourse.Afterpassingthecourse,theexperimentalgroupdemonstratedsignificantlyhigherNVCskills(8.97±1.10vs.5.64±2.15,P<0.001), vs. the controlgroup. Seventeenstudents(44.7%) in the experimental groupshowedimprovementof4ormoreunitsinNVCsskillsaftertrainingbutnostudentsfrom thecontrolgroupshowedsimilarimprovement.(P=0.003).
Conclusions:EducationfocusingonenhancingNVCskillscouldimprovelevelsofcommunicationfordentalstudents. thus, Furtherinvestigationoftheclinicalimpactsofthesetypesofeducationalandformativeprogramsisrecommended.
Materials and Methods: Inthisclinicaltrial,77dental-schoolstudentsout of 104 samples whohadlessthan80%ofcommunicationskills’indicatorswereincludedandrandomlyallocatedintoexperimentalandcontrolgroups.The ones receiving more than 80 % were excluded from the study. Studentsallocatedtotheexperimentalgroupwereeducatedfor1hourincommunicationindicators,whilethecontrolgroupreceivednotraining.After2weeks,thecommunicationskillsofbothgroupswereevaluatedby 10 indicators whenworkingwithrealpatients.The evaluator, proficient in NVC skills, was blinded as to the groups.TheresultswereanalyzedbyMann-WhitneyUandFischerexacttestusingSPSSversion23.
Results:Bothgroupssharedsimilarstatisticsbeforestartingthecourse.Afterpassingthecourse,theexperimentalgroupdemonstratedsignificantlyhigherNVCskills(8.97±1.10vs.5.64±2.15,P<0.001), vs. the controlgroup. Seventeenstudents(44.7%) in the experimental groupshowedimprovementof4ormoreunitsinNVCsskillsaftertrainingbutnostudentsfrom thecontrolgroupshowedsimilarimprovement.(P=0.003).
Conclusions:EducationfocusingonenhancingNVCskillscouldimprovelevelsofcommunicationfordentalstudents. thus, Furtherinvestigationoftheclinicalimpactsofthesetypesofeducationalandformativeprogramsisrecommended.


Dawood Nawaz, Sarfraz Batool, Ishrat Fatima

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1019-1028
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.066

Pakistan is suffering from administrative problems since long time and there are many
challenges being face in the public institutions. Keeping in view the administrative issues and
prevalent bad governance, Pakistan needs to rationalise its administrative structure.There are
various aspects of this, including restructuring the whole administrative system which is
currently based generally on the federal-provincial-district divisions; introducing extensive
and across the board civil-services reforms; revisitingexisting policies and plugging policy
gaps.This study has employed analytical and descriptive research methodology to analyze the
administrativechallenges and problems in Pakistan by using the two main secondary sources;
research articles and books.The main objective of this study was to highlighted the
administrative problems and challenges which are being faced inPakistan.
Inshort,toachieveeconomicgrowthandtoimprovethequalityoflifeofthepeople,Pakistan and its
constituent provinces must bring about a radical change in the way in which they are
governed and managed, particularly with reference to macroeconomic management, proper
policy making, political stability, public administration, good governance, and adequacy of
institutional capacity.However, some solutions and recommendations are provided to
overcome these administrative problems and challenges

Evaluating TPACK Knowledge and Skills Among Arabic Pre-Service Teachers in Implementing Online Assessment During Movement Restriction Control (MCO) Of COVID-19

Muhammad Sabri Sahrir, Abdul RazifZaini, MohdAzrulAzlen Abd. Hamid, ZulkefliHamat, Taufik Ismail

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1029-1044
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.067

The importance of having the knowledge and skills in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among teachers when dealing with teaching via technology is very clear. In TPACK, there are three essential components that need to be practiced during teaching and learning in using technologies, including the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of TPACK knowledge and skill among Arabic trainee teachers in implementing online teaching and assessment during Movement Restriction Control (MCO) of COVID-19 by the Malaysian government, whereby the schools are closed to face-to-face learning activities. The pre-service teachers were purposively selected among final year students of Bachelor of Education in Teaching Arabic as a Second Language, from the Kulliyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). They weresentto various secondary schools in Selangor to complete the graduation requirement of Bachelor of Education degree in teaching practicum. The research instruments were investigating the teachers’ knowledge about three essential components of TPACK, which include technology, content, and pedagogy as well as open-ended surveys on obstacles and challenges in home-based teaching and online assessment of Arabic language before and during MCO, online learning platforms used and further suggestions to improve the use of technology in implementing online assessment of Arabic language teaching in schools during pandemic. Thefindings showed that the understanding of the trainee teachers’ level of knowledge and understanding of TPACK is very good towards implementing online teaching and assessment during the home-based and online teaching during pandemic. The responses of online learning platforms used and proposed suggestions to improve the use of technology in implementing online assessment may also beneficial to teachers in preparing the online teaching and assessment in home-based setting during COVID-19 pandemic.


Yasir Aftab Farooqi, Dr. Chaudhry Abdul Rehman, Dr. Sumaira Rehman

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1045-1066
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.068

Of late, organizational behavior literature details the notion of work-family enrichment and more
attention was gained by the said concept. However, in previous studies supporting emerges from
the work and family front has ignored. The purpose of this research is to qualitatively explore the
role of family and work as predictors of family-to-work enrichment (FWE) and work-to-family
enrichment (WFE) among dual-career employees in higher education institutions of Pakistan.
Data were gathered through the semi-structured interview from 22 faculty members of
universities. Further, thematic analysis was applied by using NVivo-11 software. Findings
supported the family support and also the work support for developing both work-to-family and
family-to-work enrichment. The research signals the significance of ensuring organizational
support for having effective employees. This study extends the literature of work and family by
including role support for having FEW and WEF which is rarely studied in the Pakistani context.

Political Marginalization of Pakistani Transgender Community: A Case Study of District Bahawalpur

Shakil Akhtar, Rabia Sadiq, Nailakanwal, Junaid Mumtaz, Syed Adeel Ahmad Bukhari

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1067-1080
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.069

If all groups of any society are not treated equally and given with opportunities to work for their
betterment then that society cannot relish the zenith of prosperity and progress. Same goes with
political opportunities. Equal political participation is the beauty of any civilized and democratic
society. From the time of Greek political philosophers, it has been seen that a polity is respected
and even raised in status if the political participation and awareness of masses is high.
Correspondingly, in the 21st century a country with stable politics, democracy and highest equal
political opportunities is considered to be developed. Especially the political rights and role of
minorities-like women, transgender and religious minorities has great significance in political
development of a society. Sad to say, Pakistan lacks political participation of minorities. Political
development of Pakistan is at its lowest. This study focuses on the political participation of
transgender community in the district Bahawalpur Punjab, Pakistan. Semi-structured interviews
had been conducted. The study finds out that political participation of transgender community
can be surged if they are educated and reserved seats are being fixed for them. The study
recommends that government should make sure to provide educational facilities to transgender

A study on “Human resource analytics for decision making in international business machine in India and United States”

Angkita Borpatra Gohain, Archana Saikia

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1081-1094
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.070

For any organization, human resources (HR) are important. It brings with it, in
addition to experience, the capacity and technical skills that are essential for any organization's
long-term success. Organizations have often had trouble determining the efficiency, status, and
opportunities of their human resources. Organizations are looking for even more intelligent
choices, from attracting the right talent to maintaining the best talent. HR-analytics has been
mostly used in the Western IT industry, but it is now making inroads in the Indian IT market as
well. HR analytics has a lot of potential in the Indian IT industry, but HR systems, teams, and
people skills have a lot of flaws. This research explores the advantages and disadvantages of HR
analytics, as well as the role of HR analytics in decision-making at IBM, a major player in the
global IT industry. HR engagement, ethics in analytics, and artificial intelligence in HR and
analytics are the main factors in IBM's better use of HR analytics in better business decisions,
according to the study's findings.


Ibodulla Ismatul laevich Soliev, Rahmonjon Mamadjonovich Ahmedov, Abdulhakimov Zuhrali Tursunalievich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1095-1102
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.071

This article develops ways to accelerate the development of small business and private entrepreneurship in the Republic of Uzbekistan, prepares scientific developments and practical recommendations for future development of the industry.


Muhammad Waqas Javed, Jibran Jamshed, Syed Wajdan Rafay Bukhari, Shaza Mahar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1130-1145
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.073

The instance study is unique of its nature providing a comprehensive analysis on right of
privacy and data protection laws in Pakistan with special reference to CCTV surveillance; its
scope in the light of judgments of Apex or Higher Courts in Pakistan. It finds that right of
privacy is interconnected with other fundamental right of life or right of dignity. CCTV
surveillance in Pakistan is ever increasing and posing a threat to right of privacy; it deliberates
the arguments about such surveillance in public or private domains and its legality. Further, it
tries to intricate the existing legal framework in Pakistan either working as a mean of safeguard
for privacy or a source of infringement of it for or against CCTV surveillance. Meanwhile, the
study also presents critical analysis of the Proposed Data Protection Bill (PDPB), 2020 in the
light of General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), 2018.

A Study On Capital Structure Of Domestic And Multinational Companies


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1146-1151
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.074

Capital structure is the composition of debt and equity securities that are used to finance a company’s assets. The choice of debt and equity is an important decision for the corporate sector because an optimal choice of financing decision increases the value of the firm. The Multinational corporations (MNC) has benefits over the Domestic companies (DC) with regard to debt raising capacity, wider options for raising capital, greater options to generate profits, diversification benefits, economies of scale, etc. This paper investigates the determinants of capital structure of domestic and multinational companies during the period 2010 to 2020. The study concluded that the significant capital structure determinants are Size, Return on Sales, Return on Assets and Profit.

A Study On Financial Performance Analysis In Salem Steel Plant At Salem


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1152-1157
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.075

Today SAIL is one of the largest industrial entities in India. Its strength has been the diversified range of quality Steel product catering to the domestic, as well as the export market sandal large pool of technical and professional expertise. Today, the accent in Salem Authority of Indian Limited (SAIL) is to continuously adept to the competitive business environment and excel as a business organization, both within and outside in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate into the financial performance of Salem Steel Plant at Salam District,Tamilnadu understand their performance in a highly competitive environment. The study revealed that Salem Steel Plant in the study area have not performed well on all the parameters of financial performance. On plant performed best on one parameter, but worst on another which prove that the overall financial performance of the steels has not been quite good and all the Steel Plants have to make improvements on different steels.

Aesthetic aspects of the teacher's professiogram primary classes.

Dustova Dildora Sobirjanovna, Abdullaev Sayfulla Fayzullaevich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1158-1163
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.076

Following article deals with some aspects of the formation of the esthetic culture of
students in the process of teaching the Russian language. It analyzes the features of the
upbringing of the esthetic culture of future teachers of primary education.

Timeshare or Club rest as a lever for the development of tourism in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Eshtaev Alisher, Abduganiev Abdulaziz

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1164-1168
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.077

This article does discuss an essence of Time Share. Moreover, main purpose of this
article is to investigate Time Share and its strengths in order to enhance one of the strategic
realms of economy of Republic of Uzbekistan. Consequently, the juxtaposition of views and
experience of foreign countriesprovided in this article.

Bibliometric analysis of Financial Risk Management

Iftikhar Ahmad, ShahidIqbal, Farah Naz, ShahzadJamil, IjlalHaider

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1169-1181
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.078

Financial risk management enhances financialperformance and effectiveness, and it has been
recently received research recognition and momentum.This study aims to adopt a
bibliometric analysis of financial risk management to identify the research trends and
opportunities related to diverse types of research papers published in journals and
conferences indexed by Web of Science for the years 2004-2018. The main objectives of this
study include finding the research trend of financial risk management publications and
citations, top research areas, the most influential papers based on citation count, the top
supportive funding agencies, and the future research direction. This bibliometric study
indicates that the interest of researchers is increasing in financial risk management every year
due to an unpredictable environment and economic situation. The number of citations to
financial risk management research papers has been growing. The top research areas in
financial risk management include business economics, environmental sciences ecology,
engineering, mathematics, and operation research management science. The analysis
indicates that the National Natural Science Foundation of China supports most of the
financial risk management research by funding the research. This reflects the vast interests
and trends of financial risk management among researchers. This study can be a valuable
learning point for young researchers to find attractive, relevant research insights
withinfinancial risk management.

Ho Chi Minh's Ideology on revolutionary Medical Ethics

Le Thi Tam Hieu

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1182-1196
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.079

President Ho Chi Minh, a hero of national liberation, a world cultural celebrity has
left us a huge and extremely valuable spiritual legacy, which we have not been able to exploit
the full extent of that heritage in both breadth and depth, including his ideology on medical
ethics. Researching on his medical ethics is important in improving the medical ethics of
Vietnamese doctors today.
The author uses the method of analysis, synthesis, and comparison of data sources to study
Ho Chi Minh's ideology on medical ethics. The research results show that Ho Chi Minh's
ideology on medical ethics shows the unity between morality and politics - a characteristic in
Ho Chi Minh's ideology, which is the revolutionary medical ethics in general and the medical
ethics of the socialist doctor, including ethical standards to regulate the perception and
behavior of doctors in relation to patients, profession, colleagues, society and themselves.

The Meaning Of The Lotus’s Symbol In Bubbhist Philosophy For VietNam Now

Dr. Pham Phuong Anh, Nguyen Thien Tin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1197-1210
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.080

Among the great civilizations in the world, it is impossible not to mention India,
one of the cradles of Eastern civilization, the paradise land of many religious
philosophyschools. This is the place where a transcendent human being, a great spiritual
leader of mankind, was born Siddhattha Gotama - Shakyamuni Buddha, the founder of the
Buddhist philosophical. The humanistic ideas of Buddhism have always had a positive
value on human life until now. The symbol “Lotus” is not only an auspicious image but
also represents the moral and human philosophies of Buddhism and the meaning of the
Lotus which is valuable to Vietnamese society in contributing to building the solidarity,
mutual love - the beauty of modern Vietnamese people and moral education for people
according to the motto of living a good life and promoting social progress.

Prospects for the development of corporate social responsibility in Polandafter the COVID-19 pandemic

Jakub Kubiczek

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1211-1217
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.081

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic raised many questions, including these
concerning the future of CSR. The aim of this study is to present the prospects for the
development of corporate social responsibility in Poland after the COVID-19 pandemic. The
number of good practices in Poland is increasing every year and the dynamics was maintained
during the pandemic, despite the fact that some sectors faced a difficult economic situation.
Specialattention should be paid to enterprises that are financed with public money, as they
were the ones thatstarted activities for the benefit of local communities during the pandemic.
The post-pandemic period will ensure the stabilization of the economic situation and may
constitute the foundation for the further development of corporate social responsibility


Mahkmudova D.M. M.

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1218-1230
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.082

Process of development the strategy of financial stability includes definition of the
most effective directions according to the solution of goals which is followed by search and an
assessment of alternative versions of possible strategic financial decisions on criterion of
increase in level of financial stability of enterprises of textile industry.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1231-1242
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.083

Indian banks are trying to make your life easier. Not just bill payment, you can make
investments, shop or buy tickets and plan a holiday at your fingertips. In fact, sources from
ICICI Bank tell us, "Our Internet banking base has been growing at an exponential pace over
the last few years. Currently around 78 percent of the bank's customer base is registered for
Internet banking." To get started, all you need is a computer with a modem or other dial-up
device, a checking account with a bank that offers online service and the patience to complete
about a one-page application- which can usually be done online.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1243-1254
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.084

Customer satisfaction is a term frequently used in marketing. It is a measure of how
products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation.
Customer satisfaction, this study is aimed to analysis the customer satisfaction in
villupuram district, how the people choosing the brand of cellular phone and what are
the parameter to choose the selected brands. Brand preference reflects a desire to use
a particular company's products or services, even when there are equally priced and
equally-available alternatives. In fact, more often than not, brand preference indicates a
desire to seek out a specific product or service, even when it requires paying more or
expending more effort to obtain it. Brand preferences are important to companies
because it provides an indicator of their customers' loyalty, the success of their
marketing tactics, and the strength of their respective brands. Measure of brand loyalty
in which a consumer will choose a particular brand in presence of competing brands,
but will accept substitutes if that brand is not available. Brand preference is strongly
linked to brand choice that can influence the consumer decision making and activate
brand purchase, many brands



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1255-1265
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.085

The development of e-banking in each country is dependent on the speed of internet
access, the features of new online banking, and the frequency of e-banking usage. In the
banking industry, e-banking is formed when there is a combination between the
information technology and the functions of banks and financial institutions. Internet
banking was first introduced in Malaysia in June 2000 when Bank Negara Malaysia
gave permission to the local banks to offer Internet banking services. To satisfy
customer’s need, many types of products and services were provided by the banks
through Internet banking websites.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1266-1271
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.086

Mobile service is one of the largest industries in the world. In this market, competition is on the
rise through economic opening. The region's use of mobile telephones was promoted by private
companies. It's the consumer demand today for telecom networks. Mobile providers must take
note of customer opinions and deals on the market. Mobile providers must identify customers '
desires and influence the factors before developing any service or deal. In this context, the
research document focuses on the factors which are most relevant to customers when using
mobile service providers. Telecom is one of the main infrastructure markets of our country, the
government of India said. The study was done in a well-structured schedule. The public
telecommunications sector was able to achieve universal service to all the villages protected by
global class standards under economic liberalization, privatization and competition politics in
India and make the broadcasting of telecommunications open. The purpose of this paper is to
analyze the customer satisfaction on different types of mobile service providers and widely used
mobile network in cuddalore

Analysis of the Awareness Level of Islamic Economics Doctoral Students at the State Islamic University of North Sumatera in Using Halal Products

Ismail, Herwan Nafil, Yenni Arfah, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1272-1280
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.087

Access to halal products or food is very easy in Indonesia, so consumers do not pay too much
attention to the halalness of a product. Halal awareness is needed to answer the needs of Muslims
for halal products. The purpose of this research is to analyze halal awareness and the factors that
influence it. WarpPLS 7.0 program is used to help analyze the effect of the variables studied.
Structure Equation Modeling (SEM-PLS) analysis was used in this quantitative type of research
with doctoral students of Islamic economics at the State Islamic University of North Sumatra as the
sample. The results showed that the religiosity variable had a significant effect on halal awareness,
the halal certificate variable and the knowledge variable also had a significant effect on halal
awareness. Together, the three exogenous variables have a significant influence on the endogenous


Nirmadarningsih Hiya, Diana Hasyim, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1281-1299
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.088

This study aims to determine the effect of Bank of Indonesia Certificate (SBI) Interest
Rates, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Return On Equity (ROE), and Earning Per Share (EPS) on
Stock Returns of Manufacturing Companies in the Food and Beverage Sub-sector listed on the
Indonesia Stock Exchange. This research is all industries that areincluded in the food and beverage
sub-sector manufacturing companies. The data used in this research is secondary data. The
sampling technique was carried out using the purposive sampling method, namelyselecting samples
based on specific criteria. The research sample was obtained from as many as ten companies from
2014 to 2018.
The methods used in this research are descriptive statistics, classical assumption test (normality test,
multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity test, and autocorrelation test), multiple linear regression,
coefficient of determination, and hypothesis testing (partially and simultaneously). The results of
this study indicate that partially the SBI interest rate has a significant positive effect on stock
returns, and Earning Per Share (EPS) has a significant positive effect on stock returns. Meanwhile,
Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) and Return On Equity (ROE) have no significant effect on stock
returns. Simultaneously the interest rates of SBI, DER, ROE, and EPS have a significant effect on
stock returns.

Rola gospodarki cyrkulacyjnej w rozwoju miast (The Role of a Circular Economy in the Urban Development)

Magdalena Piłat- Borcuch

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1300-1305
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.089

The purpose of the article is to present the problems of the circular economy in an
urban context. An economy whose system is based on raw materials obtained from waste,
which allows not only to reduce costs related to the functioning of cities, but to improve the
of life in cities. The article presents the change in the logic of the functioning of cities,
highlighting their ecological face. The assumptions of the circular economy were presented,
emphasizing the necessity and irreversibility of implementing its assumptions. Then,
reference was made to Chinese and European examples of the implementation of the circular
economy assumptions.

The Relationship between Macroeconomic Factors and Indian Stock Market

Dr.Ashoka M.L., Hamid Reza Keihani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1306-1312
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.090

The main aim of the study to examine the impact of the macroeconomic variables i.e. inflation
and exchange rate on the Indian stock market especially on National Stock Exchange (NSE) –
Nifty 50 index, the data used for the period from 2010 to 2020 based on the secondary data
collected from NSE official website to evaluate the relationship with inflation and exchange rate.
Linear regression model was designed and used to evaluate whether independent variables i.e
inflation, oil price and GDP growth rate has significant relationship on dependent variable stock
market or not. The regression results of the study reveal that there is a statistical negative
relationship between inflation and the Indian stock market and whereas, oil price and GDP
growth rate has a statistically significant positive relationship on Indian stock market growth.

The Effect of Risk Management on Financial Performance: the case of Commercial Banks of Ethiopia

Gidey Yifer, Dr.NageswaraRao Thadvuai, Dr.AntihaLourdu James

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1313-1324
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.091

Risk management has become an important topic for financial institutions, especially
since the business sector of financial services is related to conditions of uncertainty.
The turmoil of the financial industry emphasizes the importance of effective risk
management procedures. The aim of this paper was therefore to identify the impact of risk management and its impact on bankperformance on the Ethiopian banks performance. Balanced fixed effect panelregression was used for the data of seven commercial banks in the sample covered theperiod from 2004 to 2015. Four risk management variables that affect banksperformance were selected and analysed. The results of panel data regressionanalysis showed that operational risk indicator (CIR) had negativeand statistically significant impact on banks performance. Capital adequacy ratiohad positive and statistically significant impact on banks performance. In addition this, the study analysed by descriptive statistical tools and on hypothesis testing using regression model. This leads the researcher to conclude in the last section that banks with good risk management policies have a lower risk and relatively higher return on asset. Finally, liquidity ratio and cost to income ratio are significant key drivers of performance of commercials banks in Ethiopia. Indeed focusing and reengineering the institutions alongside these indicators could enhance the profitability as well as the performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia.

Organisational Agility and 7Ps of the marketing mix for the post-COVID-19 period: A case study of the Indian informal food sector

Uma VakadaeRamkumar, ManivannanAnand Shankar Raja, Joseph Varghese Kureethara

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1325-1339
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.092

This study uncovers the reality of the COVID-19 epidemic, acting as a significant hurdle for
small restaurants' sustainability.The study used a purely qualitative methodology dealing with
data collected from the industry to frame effective sustainability strategies to revamp the
business.Hence,in-depth interviews to capture the real problems faced by restaurants were
conducted.From the study, we understood that big citiessuch asChennai, Bengaluru and
Thiruvananthapuram took initiatives in the post-COVID-19 crisis to bring about changes in the
business process, giving importance to online ordering and delivery, new cuisines and more
hygienic transparency. Small cities such asCoimbatore, Thiruvallaand Kochi are still confident
of running their businesses, but there may not be a drastic change in the process. However, their
expectationsof helpfrom the government are high. Three major factors are being considered to be
cornerstone elements, which are health, cleanliness and hygiene. In this research, the scope is
limited only to restaurants in big and small cities, whilelarge-sized star category hotels have not
been considered.


PhD. Dat, Nguyen Van

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1340-1350
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.093

Famers are facing a credit constrain which limit them to reinvest on their farming activities. In this
context, formal credit plays a major role in their production. This study employs mixed
methodology including quantitative and qualitative analysis. Theoretical models have been tested
by using analysis of reliability Cronbach’s Alpha, EFA factor analysis, and multiple linear
regression analysis. The findings suggest eight factors which significantly impact the accessibility
to credit of farmers in Dak Nong province. Asset ownership appears to be an important factor as
collateral for their loan applications.


Sarmad Ali Khaskheli, Hamid Ali Kalwar, Muhammad Ahmed Kalwar, Hussain Bux Marri, Muhammad Ali Khan, Murlidhar Nebhwani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1351-1367
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.094

The purpose of this research paper was to suggest the optimum service level of queuing
system of reception and the outpatient department during COVID-19 pandemic. The data was
collected from the reception and OPD of the ABC public hospital of Hyderabad. Data
included, the arrival times, service times of patients and number of doctors and receptionist at
the workplace, their salaries and waiting cost of patients. Input analysis of patients` arrivals
and service was conducted by in input analyzer of Rockwell Arena software. TORA
optimization software was used for the calculation of performance measures. Various costs of
queuing system were calculated in MS Excel and the required graphs were also plotted. After
the in-depth analysis, it was revealed that one receptionist and one doctor should be increased
to bring optimality in the queuing system and patients` flow. After this decision, waiting cost
of patients decreased to greater extent.


Nguyen Van Uy, Thai Thi Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1368-1378
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.095

The study is based on Chase 1994's approach to management capacity of head nurses and uses
linear regression analysis to determine the relationship between the components of head nurses'
management capacity with other influencing factors. The results show that factors such as age,
seniority of management, degrees, seniority of work, and management degrees explain 39.1% of
the change in professional capacity and 56% of the change in professional competence
explaining 52% of the change in thinking ability, explaining 33% of the change in leadership
skills and explaining 34% of the change in management skills of financial management. The
relationship between management seniority and professional skills is statistically significant and
negatively correlated. The relationship between qualifications, working seniority and human
resource management skills is statistically significant and positively correlated. The relationship
between qualifications, management degrees and thinking skills of head nurses is statistically
significant and positively correlated. In addition, the research results also show that the
relationship between the influencing factors and the components of the management capacity of
head nurses is not statistically significant.


Abi Waqqosh, HenyLiya Hasibuan, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1379-1387
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.096

This research is a quantitative type of research that aims to determine the relationship
between GDP, Exchange Rate and Oil Prices on the State Budget Deficit. The variables used in this
study consisted of 3 independent variables and 1 dependent variable. The sample in this study is
Indonesia from 1988 to 2018. The analysis model uses Partial Least Square with the help of the
WarpPls 7.0 application. Partial Least Square is a statistical data analysis methodology that is at the
intersection between regression models, structural equation models, and multiple table analysis
methods. The results show that gross domestic product has a significant negat ive effect on the
APBN deficit, the exchange rate has an insignificant negative effect on the APBN deficit, and oil
prices the world has an insignificant positive effect on the state budget deficit

Determinants Influencing The Application of Management Accounting: The Case of Vietnam


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1388-1402
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.097

The study aimed to determine the factors influencing the level of application of
management accounting in feed production firms in Vietnam. Data were collected from the
survey of 228 feed production firms in Vietnam. The study employs the combination of
qualitative and quantitative methods with building multivariate regression models of
determinants affecting the application of management accounting in those firms. The
results contribute to building a multivariate regression model of factors affecting the
application of management accounting in food production firms. Based on the findings,
some recommendations are proposed for improving the effectiveness of applying
management accounting in Vietnamese food production firms.


Jensolin Abitha Kumari J, Dr Preeti R Gotmare

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1403-1413
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.098

The Indian E-commerce industry is growing rapidly due to outbreak of pandemic, rapid increase
in use of smartphones and access to high speed internet have resulted in customers looking for
convenience by making online purchase thereby saving time and cost. Technology plays an
inevitable role in helping ecommerce firms maximize their profit by analyzing customer
behavior online, making recommendations and providing personalized pricing. This paper will
focus of understanding and analyzing the present scenario in the online retail space to explore the
following concerns which is a point of discussion in this field. Are customers really being treated
fairly by ecommerce firms? Are customers guided to make purchase through recommendation
engines and personalized pricing and end up paying more as firms are able to identify their
willingness to pay more? This provides a qualitative study to answer these questions.


Tran My Hai Loc

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1414-1426
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.099

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a broad and deep influence on
all countries, is currently unfolding in a complex manner. The world economy has
entered a deep recession. Vietnam, a country with a high level of economic openness and
substantial international connectivity, has also been hit by the COVID-19 outbreak.
Vietnam's economy, on the other hand, has maintained its development, with an
anticipated GDP growth rate of 2,91 percent. Following the COVID-19 pandemic,
Vietnam is progressively becoming a promising market for attracting foreign direct
investment due to key socioeconomic policies and goals, as well as the country's
remarkable advantages and position in the international arena.

Dimensions of Consumer Satisfaction By Buying a Mitsubishi Brand Vehicle

Ahmad Aswan Waruwu,Harianto, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1427-1435
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.100

PT. New Marwa or Mitsubishi Indonesia Medan branch is engaged in investment in
Mitsubishi brand car loans. The problem faced is a decrease in sales turnover. This study aims to
determine whether price, product quality, and service quality simultaneously influence consumer
satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja Medan. This research uses multiple linear regression models.
The distribution of questionnaires to a sample of 91 respondents. The data analysis technique used
is the quantitative method with the help of SPSS version 16.0. The results showed that the price
partially had a positive and significant effect on consumer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja.
Product quality is partially positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM
Raja. Service quality is partially positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction at
Mitsubishi SM Raja. Price, product quality and service quality simultaneously have a positive and
significant effect on customer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja. Adjusted R Square 0.751 or the
determination of the remaining 75.1% 24.9% are other factors outside themodel.

India’s Urban Growth in Recent Times: Need for Sustainable Urban Development Strategies

M. Mahadeva

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1436-1450
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.101

India’s urbanisation process can be characterised as divisive and uneven, owing to
lack of sustainable public strategies benefitting to all sizes of cities and towns in the country. The
urbanisation is highly inclined to major urban centres, including the state capitals and is
conspicuously uneven, due to improper development of public infrastructure and public services,
especially in the small and medium towns. The urbanisation process has largely driven by the
economic considerations like increased employment opportunities, higher income earnings and
other social benefits and comforts than the human settlement challenges. Having been promoted
and nurtured the main urban centres, the urbanisation process has not only divided the
settlements over the decades but also displaced smallest towns in the recent years. The small and
medium towns being the settlements of low-income groups and the immediate tiny service
centres, continuing to suffer without the basic socio-economic infrastructure. Realisation of the
urban outcomes although has led to the public intervention in the late 80s but its effectiveness to
ensure sustainable urban development is far from satisfaction. This is largely due to mandatory
participation in expenditure sharing by the states and due to lack of political will for the subregional
development. As a result, the impact of IDSMT is not widespread across the country but
limited to selected major states, which have had the capacity to share the public expenditure and
exhibited the political will. Above all, complete abandonment of the ongoing strategic
development without adequate alternative design is a serious setback to decent and orderly urban
life at the hitherto neglected small and medium towns. The emergent urban challenges have been
discussed in greater details and this paper offers a sustainable policy imperative, as contributions
to the effective public intervention, to achieve the desired goals of the inclusive urbanisation and
orderly urban life in the country.

Israel: Transport costs and customs duty - is on you The increase in customs value in Israel, due to the increase in transport prices – the problem, and the way to the solution

Adv. Omer Wagner

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1451-1453
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.102

In the past year, sea freight prices have risen sharply, an increase that has not been
remembered for many years.
Thus, according to various publications, about a year ago, renting a container for sea
transportation from China to Israel, costed about 2,000$, and today, the same
transportation costs about 15,000$.
According to the publications, the reasons for this significant increase are due, among
other things, to the COVID-19 crisis, global shortages of ships, declining competition in
the field, and containers of contagious demand. In addition, there is a "Made of Israel"
reason, since due to the congestion at ports in Israel, there are ships that prefer not to dock
in Israel, and then the number of ships that can dock in Israel is even smaller2.
Apart from the increase in transportation costs, which is expected to lead to a wave of
price increases in the sale of products in Israel, there is another parameter that is slightly
pushed to the margins, and that is the increase in the value of goods for customs purposes,
due to rising transportation prices. This increase in prices leads to further collection of
customs duties, purchase tax and import taxes, due to the increase in value.
As I will present in this review, in my opinion - the Israeli law already allows the state to
facilitate importers at this point - and similar and other facilitations have been made in the

The promise of mortgagein the Jordanian civil law

Dr.NasirAlbala'wi .

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1454-1467
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.103

The researcher dealt with the subject of the promise of mortgage, and the most
important conditions that must be met in order for us to be in front of a promise of
mortgage that fulfill all the legal conditions in the first requirement of the research were
discussed,then to talk about the most important implications of the promise of mortgage
in the second requirement of this research. The problem of the research lies in clarifying
the adequacy of the legal texts regulating the provisions of the mortgage, so that the
legislator did not deal with the issue of the promise of the mortgage within these rules,
and on the other hand, the statement of the extent to which the general rules related to
the promise to contract on the promise of mortgage can be dropped. The researcher
followed the descriptive analytical approach to answer the problem posed in the
research by describing the problem under study and analyzing the legal texts regulating
the subject using jurisprudence opinions and jurisprudence of the courts.

Performance of Microfinance Providers; Does Social Efficiency matters?

Maeenuddin, ShaariAbd Hamid , Annuar MD Nassir, Ghayasuddin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1564-1573
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.104

Microfinance sector showed a tremendous growth for the last decade and got a considerable
attention throughout the entire world specifically in the developing countries, but on the other
side the number of poor people has not been decreased. The focus of this study is to investigate
the social efficiency of microfinance providers and to examine the different factors or problems
that affecting the social efficiency of microfinance providers. Social efficiency means to how
efficientlytransfer the products and services of the MFPs to the society with minimum cost. Data
Envelopment Analysis approach has been proposed for the measurement of social efficiency
with the total assets, total number of staff, operational expenditure as input while Average loan
balance/ borrower/GNIpc. Number of female borrowers and indicator of benefit to the poorest as
output variables. Regression analysis is proposed to find out the impact of different factors on the
social efficiency of microfinance providers. Factors affecting the social efficiency of
microfinance providers includes the presence of aggressive marketing, focus on profit oriented
programs, commercialization, high level of competition, entrepreneurial behaviors of the people,
different cultural dimensions, high interest rates, political instability, growth addiction, focus on
stability or short term profitability, focus on loan repayment, lack of follow-up programs, lack of
awareness, miss use of loan, fear of defaults, lack of technical support etc. which have to be
considered in future studies.


Dr. Shatha Ayub Alabduljabbar, Dr. Astha Bhanot

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2224-2237
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.105

This research paper analyzes Sustainable Supply Chain Management during and Post Covid-19. A novel Covid-19 has developed a great danger to the health of the people in the entire World and also severely affected 210 countries and its areas.  A profound problem disturbed social activities, global trade, industries and educational institutions by confinements and social distance.  An outbreak of Covid-19 has intensified human sorrows by economic loss.  The impacts are considerable on society, economy, health, environment and education.  Especially education was affected more compared to others.  Each and every country was trying to protect the disease transmission.  And government introduced many remedies like isolating, testing, treating patients, banning public groupings and lockdown for some months.  This paper focuses on higher education sustainability during and Post Covid-19.  It also presents the important objective to examine the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the educational sector. The paper highlights the experience of Yanbu University Colleges in Saudi Arabia. It purposes to give exploration idea for examining sustainability supply chain management  in a higher education especially during and Post Covid-19 situation.


Syed Imran Azhar Bokhari,Dr. HajraIhsan, Fouzia Jamshaid

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2238-2252
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.106

Social networking sites especially Facebook is being increasingly used by marketers to conduct online promotion activities. Despite being the most important online marketing tool these days, many companies is begun thinking about how utilizing social network. Facebook could help in appealing customer’s attention and to construct a profitable relationship with prospective people. Thus the objective of current research is to examine social network Facebook marketing predictors which help marketers to predict customer’s purchase intention. The current study proposed a conceptual framework and it tested with the cross-sectional data gathered from 300 students who used social network Facebook with the help of a questionnaire. The present study empirically confirmed that social network Facebook marketing predictors are significantly related to customers purchase intention. In the same way, interactivity and information content has a substantial impact on performance expectancy. Moreover, performance expectancy has been shown to have a significant impact on customer purchase intention. The results revealed that performance expectancy while partly mediating the relationships between interactivity and customer purchase intention.  Findings of structural equation modeling supported the validity and reliability of current study model. The research results offer various implications on how marketers can effectively plan and implement their ads on social network Facebook.


Manzar Shabab Yousaf , Tabssum Naz , Dr. Ejaz Asghar , Mohammad Touqeer Naeem Shahzad , Arslan Liaquat Arslan Liaquat

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2253-2262
DOI: 10.48047/IJARST/V11/I08/107

Background: Social media is most commonly used tool to share information these days. So, it is an effective way to approach the target population using social media hence it is becoming popular for promoting social media marketing. Visual content like videos is an effective way for delivering messages. So the researchers are aimed at finding the efficiency of the using visual content (videos) for social media marketing.
Methods: Standard questionnaire was designed, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted. 700 individuals were enrolled 456 males and 244 females. Data regarding study was obtained and then analyzed using SPSS.
Results: Current studies showed that most of the sample population prefer to watch a video. They provide the reasons such as it provides a clear message and removes confusions. It is time saving and fascinating for the viewers. Instagram and Facebook are more frequently used than any other medium.
Conclusion:From this study we may conclude that using videos for social media (Facebook and Instagram) marketing can attract people to watch more sports. One reason is that the Facebook and Instagram are easy to assess and very common in use these days. Moreover, video is easier to deliver the concepts clearly removing the confusions, and the main reason is that it saves the time of people and can effectively deliver the message than any other tool.


SakineBeygom Kazemi, Mehrnush Jafari, SeyedMojtaba Hosseini, Ali Maher, Mohammadkarim Bahadori

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2263-2277
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.108

Background: Establishment of telemedicine and especially teledermatologyis quite challenging despite their numer-ous benefits.This requires an in-depth study of the key factors in this process using a valid and reliable instrument that is tailored to the culture of the studied population. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to devel-opa modelfor establishment ofteledermatologyin Iran.
Methods: Amixed-methods descriptive design was utilized in this study. The required data were collected using a custom questionnaire. A sample of 384 IT managers and experts in the field of dermatology completed the question-naire. To verify the validity and reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha as well as exploratory and confirma-tory factor analysis were used in LISREL 8.80 and SPSS 24, respectively, and Friedman test was used to rank the factors.
Results:Based on the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the key factors in the establishment of teledermatology in Iran included: provider (8 components), recipient (11components), economic (8 components), structural (6 components), technological (9 components), policy making (5 components), legal (6 components), and cultural (5 components) factors. Cultural factors had the greatest impact and economic factors had the least impact on establishment ofteledermatology in Iran.
Conclusion: Theproposed model consisting of 8 factors can serve as a useful and comprehensive guide for policy-making and decision-making on how to establishteledermatology.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2278-2301
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.109

Managers’ supervisory behavior plays a crucial role in the employees’ sustainable behavior of any type of officialdoms. Affirmative sustainable behavior augments all the indicators of the performance in an organization. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the collective effect of supervisory support, trust in the supervisor, and having a commitment to the supervisor for forecasting the sustainable behavior of employees working in banking sectors in Pakistan. This study also investigated the mediating role of employees’ organizational commitment on the relationship between supervisory behaviors and employees’ sustainable behavior. The data were collected frombankers working in various commercialbanks in Pakistan through convenience sampling. A total of 387 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed through Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings of the study show that supervisory behavior has a significant positive impact on employee sustainable behaviors.Supervisory behavior (ESS, ISB, TS, and CS) have a significant direct effect on the employees’ organizational commitment. Further, findings also confirmed that employees' organizational behavior mediates the relationship between supervisory behavior (ESS, ISB, TS, and CS) and employees' sustainable behavior. The study enhances the existing literature and provides useful insights to supervisors working in banks, and helps to improve employees’ sustainable behavior.


Mr. Qamber Ali , Isma Zaighum, Ph.D., . Dr. Mubashir ,Ph.D

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2302-2314
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.110

The study assessed the self-concept of rural and urban adolescents. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select rural and urban adolescent students from Karachi, Sindh province in Pakistan. The total number of adolescent students selected for the study was 12000 which consist of 6000 rural (3000 boys and 3000 girls) and 6000 urban students (3000 boys and 3000 girls). The Belbin’s Self Perception Inventory (SPI) was used for data collection and some statistical methods like descriptive and inferential methods were used for data analysis. The results confirmed that urban adolescent students showed greater self-evaluation and aspiration than rural adolescent students. The category-wise data showed that urban adolescent students led rural adolescents in both genders on self-evaluation and aspiration.


Dr. Manzir Abbas,Sadaf Sheikh Dr. Ozgur Cengel

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2322-2344
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.112

We intended to figure out the main factors that were affecting consumers buying and established the model for unplanned buying,  for the case of departmental stores located in Lahore. We included a sample with different (independent) buying behaviour, emotions of customers, promotion & advertisement, physical environment and price of products variables. The objective was set to examine the leading factors influencing customers to buy in departmental stores (MM  Migro's, A-101, Bim and Śuck) of  Istanbul, Turkey. The survey approach was taken in this study through a proper sampling design using convenience sampling with sample size 250 were used in the study. Overall the result was derived to the conclusion by using the SPSS software and find valid reliability for the variables. We found correlation between different variable to check the relationship and regression model to check model significant. Finally, this study can propose valuable policy implications.


,Mehwish Liaqat, Nazia Jahangir(corresponding author), Iqra GhafoorDr. Qurratulain Fatima ,Dr. Qurratulain FatimaSaira Nisar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2315-2321
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.111

Emotional intelligence is anessential factor that may measure individual’s performance in their professional lives beyond their daily lives, increase or decrease their success, contribute to the measurement of managerial qualities, and improve organizational communication and interaction. The present study aimed to identify the role of emotional intelligence on conflict management styles among nurses. The sample consistedof 400 nurses, and the model was taken from four public and four private hospitals located in Multan city. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data, and the age range was between 25 to 45 years. Two research instruments were used to collect the data. The emotional intelligence scale developed by Schutte et al. (2018) was used and consisted of 33 items. The interpersonal conflict inventory developed by Rahim (1983) was used and consisted of 28 items. This study showed the relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management styles; integration, obliging, dominating, and compromising are positively correlated with the score of emotional intelligence, and avoiding was negatively correlated withemotional intelligence. The results further showed a significant difference in age on emotional intelligence among nurses, and there is also a significant difference in age on conflict management styles among nurses. Moreover, the results revealed a significant difference on emotional intelligence and conflict management styles among the nurses of public and private hospitals.


Naeem Shahzad , Tabssum Naz , Farhan Shahid ,Feroz Usmani , Hafiza Rukhsana Khuram

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2374-2384
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.115

Corruption has become a severe problem in Pakistan and it is shaking the foundation of the country. Corruption is equally problematic to measure and quantify. Therefore a comprehensive practice is to access the perception of corruption among people. This study evaluate situation, seriousness, causes and level of corruption. This study based on descriptive survey type’s research. It also measurements the awareness of corruption among people of Faisalabad. Majority of the people have personal experience of corruption.Most of people observe that the officials of political government are not demonstrating any political from public establishments. They observe the feeble accountability machinery is the major causes of corruption in government and Private departments.


Azhar Ali Marri, Mir G.H.Talpur

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2385-2395
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.116

The main objective of this research was to determine the day of the week effect in Karachi stock exchange (KSE) 100 Index. The problems of financial market structure is analyzed and forecasted by many statistical models. For example Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and artificial neural network (ANN) models. In this research day of the week effect was investigated Wednesday found significant and Monday was noted not significant. 15 step ahead prediction of Wednesday was observed through ARIMA model and ANN models. The coefficient of correlation for actual and forecasted values was perceived 0.8871 by ARIMA model and 0.924 by ANN model. Power of accuracy was displayed 88.765% by ARIMA model and 97.18% by ANN model. Keywords; 


Syed Imran Azhar Bokhari, Dr. HajraIhsan, Fouzia Jamshaid; Waqas Amin, Edwin Hernan Ramirez-Asis, Juan Emilio Vilchez-Carcamo, Miguel Angel Silva-Zapata, Rizwan Ali, Kiran Zahra Gillani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2419-2432
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.119

Our work aims to consider the effect of outreach on the productivity of staff working in microfinance institutions (MFIs). The study considers the panel data of Latin American countries for the period of 2006-2020. For this study, we use several techniques, including Ordinary least square (OLS), Random effect model (RE) and generalized method of momentum(GMM). Accessing poor customers is more dangerous to MFIs and harmful for staff efficiency and productivity. So, we disclosed that the influence of depth of outreach on staff productivity is negative. Whilethe breadth of outreach is found to impact staff productivity, serving better off clients positively is not risky for MFIs and improves the institution's productivity. Better off clients provide a cushion against credit risk, so MFIs are more focused on extending the loan to these clients, increasing staff productivity. GMM also present the same results. MFIs prefer to provide loan facilities to all those customers who work for, extending the staff productivity, and this technique also reduces the credit risk. Our study on the impact of MFIs outreach on its productivity is comparatively new in the microfinance field instead of others studies like impact on efficiency, sustainability and profitability. 


Dr. Manzir Abbas, Sadaf Sheikh; Mr. Naveed Ahmed, Dr. Rehmat Shah, Dr. Maksal Minaz, Dr. Sajjad Hussain

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2433-2446
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.120

Education is the main pillar for the development of a country. Madrassa education systems have a sensitive and important role in Pakistan. This system produces religious leaders whom peoples follow as spiritual leaders, but the international world has different perceptions about Madrassa. The purpose of this study was to explore how Madrassa management implements the student’s rights and what are the causes of violation of student’s rights in Madrassa. This study was qualitative in nature to understand in-depth knowledge of Madrassa education phenomena. The population of the study was students and teachers of the Madrassa education system. The samples of the study were 08 students and 08 teachers of Madrassas from district Rawalpindi and a purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Data was collected personally through semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed using the direct quotation method. The findings of the study demonstrate that Madrassa systems have limited sources and government does not own Madrassa like a public institution, so Madrassa has a lot of barriers in the implementation of children's rights. The staff of Madrassa education without professional development is the cause of violation of child’s rights. Government should provide funding and other facilities to Madrassa like public educational institutions and reforms should bring after holding the trust of Madrassa stakeholders


Farbod Souri Farbod Souri

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2447-2455
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.121

In recent years, the issue of brand identity has become more and more important to academics and researchers. It stands to the reason that managers and market analysts have become aware of the value of the brand. Since many people make decisions based on the brand name, logo and color, brand identity is an important component in helping a business thrive and is the goal, mission, vision, feeling and voice of the company. In fact, it can be said that brand identity is a mixture of science and art. Therefore, considering the importance of brand identity, this study seeks to evaluate the impact of brand identity on brand performance, brand satisfaction and brand love in Iran.
The statistical population of this study consists of employees of a government organization in Tehran, whose number in 1399 was 513 people. By using simple random sampling method, 265 questionnaires were distributed and among these, 205 correct questionnaires were selected for analysis. The data collected from the questionnaire are measured by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) technique and AMOS software.
Findings from the analysis of research results showed that brand identity has affected brand performance. Also, a significant relationship was found between brand identity and brand satisfaction. Other evidence points to the impact of brand identity on brand love.


Farbod Souri, Farbod Souri,

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2456-2463
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.122

The cost management is a system for planning and control of the costs for the creation of which there are numerous ways. Every organization shall adopt a more appropriate method with respect to their terms and conditions. The cost management assists in identification, gathering, classification and allocation of the information that are used in planning, control and decision-making, for keeping a desirable limit of the costs. Just like every other institutes, the Islamic Azad University requires an optimized use of the cost management to control and reduce its expenses. For this reason and with respect to the importance of the case, the present research has dealt with identifying and prioritizing the barriers on execution of the cost management in the Islamic Azad University.
Enjoying the experts’ theories and by the means of a conducted questionnaire, using the structural equations, the result of the research data analysis indicated that the factor of “failure in accurate assessment of the performance of the chancellors of the university branches and regions” is the most important barrier in accurate management of the costs in Islamic Azad University. After that “unwillingness of the staff for economization, and for endeavor to decline the costs” included the highest level of factor loading in this case. It was also observed that the barrier of “ not paying attention to the liability assessment accounting system” is in the second place in raking of the executive barriers and after that “failure in benefiting from modern costing techniques” is in the next place. Furthermore, “failure in execution of appropriate encouraging and punishment policies”, “uncompetitiveness of the system and a weak demand for response”, “inexistence of a uniform culture of economization within the university’s environment”, and “not paying the required attention to the missed opportunity costs” are in the next places. Eventually the barriers of “not paying attention to the dedicated budget”, “not paying attention to the efficacy, effectiveness and economic efficiency of the organizational activities” and “the university’s dependence on the tuition incomes” are on the lower levels of importance from the viewpoint of the respondents.


Farbodsouri , Farbodsouri

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2464-2471
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.123

In today's world, developed and developing countries are all aware of the importance of small and medium-sized businesses for economic growth and development. Such businesses have also attracted the attention of researchers in recent decades due to their large share in GDP, job creation and reduction of economic problems. Given the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises on economic growth and development and revenue growth, the need for growth of such companies is becoming more and more apparent that one of the ways to develop them is to use e-commerce. Therefore, considering the importance of the issue, the present paper has identified and prioritized the factors affecting the use of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran.
The statistical population of this study consists of senior and middle managers of small and medium-sized enterprises located in Tehran. By using random sampling method, 130 people were selected as a statistical sample. With the help of a researcher-made questionnaire, the necessary information was collected and analyzed by using SPSS software version 24.
The results of the analysis of research hypotheses show that there is a significant positive relationship between technological factors and e-commerce. The correlation between organizational factors and e-commerce is also confirmed. In addition, the relationship between environmental factors and e-commerce is confirmed. Finally, other results show that the use of e-commerce can affect business performance.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2472-2486
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.124

The primary objective of this research study is to investigate non-performing assets in Indian educational loans. Education is a critical foundation of the Indian economy. It represents the primary source of livelihood for the development and the development of an economy. Educational loans are very important in order to achieve technological development and, implicitly, to reduce costs and use sustainable strategies. The data sample was collected from 80 lenders (bank managers) and 80 borrowers of education loans from Pudukkottai district, Tamilnadu state in India. The Multi Stage Disproportionate Sampling method has been applied for the purpose of collecting information from both the borrowers and the lenders. The analysis results refute the hypothesis, as there is no substantial variation in how various types of banks manage non-performing assets in educational credit, since the bulk of NPA instances in educational credit are the consequence of borrowers' intentional default. The majority of defaults were caused by political leaders' announcements of debt forgiveness. The empirical results are relevant and contribute to a better understanding of the impact of non-performing assets in educational loans on sustainable economic growth in India.


Farbod Souri Farbod Souri

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2487-2497
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.125

One of the most significant duties encountered by the managers of an enterprise is decision-making. Just like other individuals of the society, the managers have specific individual differences, talents, motivations, inclinations and desires and enjoy from different attitudes, knowledge and value system which can be influential upon the financing policies.
The present research deals with review of the influence of the managers’ optimism upon the financing policies and its consequences upon the companies admitted in Tehran Stock Exchange
Regarding the purpose, this is an applied research and with respect to the execution, it is descriptive-correlational. In line with this goal, the information of 125 companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during a time period of 2015-2019 were studied. In this research, in order to measure the management overconfidence, the three metrics based on the managers’ bias in prediction of the revenue, investment decisions made by the managers and the investment were used. To test the hypotheses, the multivariable regression with combined data were used.
The research findings indicated that the managers’ optimistic behavioral features resulted in an increase in managers’ use of financing patterns through the lever of debt in the companies admitted in Tehran Stock Exchange


Naeem Shahzad , Tabssum Naz , Feroz Usmani , Zunaira Khan , NaureenRana , Rida Zahra , Hafiza Rukhsana Khuram

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2498-2503
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.126

Smoking is very dangerous problems all over the world. Smoking is dangerous not only for light smokers, but also for others. Smoking is considered one of the 10 leading factors contributing to health problems worldwide, and is considered harmful substance that causes multiple organ dysfunctions and death. This research examines the attitude of students towards cigarettes use, what they like about smoking, their knowledge regarding their health, what they dislike about smoking, parents control regarding smoking, their thoughts regarding giving up smoking, their future perspective about health and also aim of the study is to create health awareness among the people. ANOVA Model was used in statistical data fit and Suitable. The ANOVA model is acceptable and significant at the level of 1%.


Ayesha Ashraf , Alia Manzoor, Malka Liaquat, Najma Yasmeen

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2498-2507
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.127

Purpose: The purpose is to add constructive points in the existing literature by identifying drivers that encompass the journey from creating awareness tothe ultimate adoption of the cryptocurrency payment system.
Methodology: Certain aspects from the TAM Model, Innovation of Diffusion Theory, & AIDA Model are synthesized to form a holistic framework. To test the model, data from 250 digital banking users was collected via survey method and analysed through SEM.
Originality: This study has significance for marketers, traders, digital banking users, and ultimate buyers of cryptocurrency as it would help them identify which areas need to be addressed for tackling early adopters
Findings: Personal level characteristics significantly influence awareness, and adoption of cryptocurrencies. Perceived benefits and risks associated with the use of cryptocurrencies moderates the relationship between crypto-currency awareness and its adoption.
Implications:The multi-perspective framework is believed to synthesize debates and discussions in the existing literature and provide the basis for future research.


TayyibaKausar, Faisal Iqbal, Edwin Ramirez-Asis, Edwin Johny Asnate-Salazar, Telmo Pablo Loli-Poma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2508-2521
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.128

Present study examines the effect of human capital accumulation and its influencing variables such as expenditure on education and quality of education, labor force, free trade and investment and its impact on economic development which can be measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product and GDP per capita. The data for the current study is comprised of economic indicators from almost 181 countries around the globe while using the panel technique. The outcome of the study suggest that enhancing the quality level of education through increasing the budget expenditure for education sector will result in capable work force which will in turn promote the economic growth of our country, similarly funds reimbursements  towards fixed capital and free trade are also major determinants of economic development. The present study is also unique in terms of data collection from a vast number of countries to generate the empirical findings related to the topic.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2522-2529
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.129

This paper inspects the role of educational achievement, both on an aggregate and disaggregated level on economic growth in Pakistan. Diversity in literacy rates will produce different outcomes. As many individuals with higher education get higher returns from their education level. Investment in education produces skilled and efficient manpower making it approachable for any country to achieve economic objectives i.e. sustainable economic growth and development. Data for the empirical analysis has been taken from 1976-2020 on annual basis. Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach to Cointegration was applied for the analysis and it was concluded that middle and higher education levels produce a higher return to the economy as a whole. So, the investment must be made to enhance the overall economic gains.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2530-2549
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.130

This research paper studies the dependence structure among cryptocurrencies. In this study, secondary data of five cryptocurrencies is used for five years (2015-2020), which was gathered from the coin market cap website. On the basis of most market capitalization, five cryptocurrencies,bitcoin, ethereum, tether, ripple and lite coin are selected. Descriptive statistics, copulas methodology, spearman and kendal tau correlation are the techniques used for hypothesis testing. This study finds that there is dependence among log-returns of selected five cryptocurrencies except for three pairs; “Bitcoins and Ethereum, Bitcoins and Litecoin, Ethereum and Litecoin”. All other combinations showed results that there is dependence among cryptocurrencies. Value of akaike information criterion is used to choose the copula that best fit the model. Results show that t-student copula is the best fit model withsymmetric tail dependence. All findings are helpful for investors, researchers, financial analysts and policy makers for future predictions.


Dr. AbdulrazzaqJabbar Salman

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2560-2568
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.132

The pages of this research are an attempt to study that close relationship which links between the narrative event and time by studying the patterns of building the narrative event in the stories (The Apple of Socrates) by the storyteller (Mohammed AlwanJabor) . This is due to the exceptional importance of these stories in the course of the short story for the prestigious position that its writer enjoys among the story writers in Iraq
Through research. We found that the formats for constructing the narrative event in this collection of stories were organized into only four typeswith the difference in the proportions of their use by the author from one format to another
The writer used (sequential construction) when the narrative events are moving in an ascending line . It is used (overlapping construction) when the narrative events overlap each other . And there is no need to know their chronological sequence . He also used (parallel construction) in those stories that include telling two stories or more at the same time. As for stories that include telling the same event several times and from different points of view where are used repetitive construction
This diversity has helped in the use of these methods of building on the storyteller (Mohammad AlwanJabor) access to the field of narrative experimentation from its widest doors.
Keywords: patterns, event, story, Socrates' apple


Dr Noman Arshed, Dr Hafeez ur Rehman , Muneeba Nazim , Asma Saher.

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2569-2584
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.133

For decades economic growth determinants have been the centre of attention among theoretical and development economists. Theoretical economists have built models of economic growth, while development economists were concerned about how these growth models behave in the long run. Previouslyresources were considered as an engine to growth, but they were prone to diminishing returns. The more recent models emphasized the role of knowledge augmented labor which may defy diminishing returns. For this, human capital is proposed as one of the main ingredients to economic growth as proposed by both neo-classical and new growth models. This studyanalyseswhether there is a precedence of the law of diminishing returns in sixty-six lower-income nations of the world.And determine whether the indicators of human capital index (HCI) can ease this diminishing return. The HCI is developed into four sub-indexes which are Capacity, Deployment, Development and Know-how. We used the robust OLS method to find how therefour sub-index of human capital work in this group of countries. The results show that the convergence hypothesishints atthe law of diminishing returns for sample countries. But by investing in human capital, or one of its sub-components, the intensity of diminishing returns will be eased.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2585-2597
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.134

The intention of conducting this research is to inspect the key macroeconomic determinants of foreign indebtedness in Pakistan. ARDL bound test is applied to annual dataranging from 1976-2018.This paper finds that debt service payment, military spending, and trade openness provoke furtherexternal borrowing, whereas growth in economic activity, depreciation of currency and capital inflow help in curtailing the overseas borrowing of our economy. The findings of this study also highlight the role of government revenue and inflation in reducing the debt burden liability. This study recommends that policy making departments should focus on relaxing the trade barriers, enhancing the overall productivity and competitiveness of the markets, stabilizing the exchange rate and designing an optimal level of military budget as all of them are contributing towards reducing the external financial liabilities.Appropriate use of foreign reserves, creating attractive environment for investment and utilization of funds in revenue-oriented projects are also necessary for combating with the issue of foreign indebtedness. Taken together, the assurance of these recommendations will help in meeting the government's financial needs and curtailing the demand for accumulation of external debt. 


Fouzia Jamshaid, Tayyiba Kausar, Edwin Hernan Ramirez-Asis, Luis Elmer Angulo-Cabanillas, Hugo Walter Maldonado-Leyva

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2613-2626

Operating liquidity and financial leverage are two important features of overall firm’s management. This study scrutinizes the association among financial leverage and different procedures of operating liquidity. Further the study has reconnoitered the joint effect of financial leverage and Operating liquidity on the performance of firm, for this purpose Return on Assets can be taken as the profitability that could gauge the profitability of firm and cement sector firms listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange have been taken as a population. For this purpose secondary data have been collected for 10 years from 2011 to 2020 through annual audited reports of sampled firms and through Business recorder. A casual research methodology has been used to explore results. Data was analyzed by using STATA software. For the sake of estimation, ratio Analysis and the panel dataregression model is incorporated to regress and construe association between the both dependent as well as the independent variables and want to find the cross sectional heterogeneity. Hausman test implies the presence of cross section heterogeneity hence, model move toward the fixed effect.  Key results of the study imply that there is significant association among financial leverage and different measures of Operating liquidity. Furthermore from results of this study it is also concluded that financial leverage and Operating liquidity have noteworthy effect on cement sector performance of the firm. This study will help not only cement sector but also other sectors firms listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange by providing close eye view on relation between financial management and the operational management and their impact on firm Success or failure.


Faisal Iqbal, Fouzia Jamshaid, Lorenzo Rafael Valderrama-Plasencia, Rosario Margarita Yslado-Mendez, TatianaGonzales-Yanac

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2627-2634

Organizations have alwaysbeen in search of high caliber individuals since last few decades; however, to keep employees with distinctive capabilities committed is a matter of visionary leadership. Various studies have discovered novel ways of fabricating desired motivational levels among group members, one of those techniques which has been more viable towards employee commitment is transformational style of a figurehead. Due to financial and time restraints employees of 12 banks form private as well as public sector of Lahore city were taken as a population sample. Survey questionnaire technique was used for data collection; self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 200 bank employees with 77% response rate. Analysis of the data revealed a positive connection among transformational leadership style and employee commitment. Present study suggest a transformational leadership style as a precursor for the attainment of an elevated level of commitment which will further become accommodating towards retaining and captivating high stature employees.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2635-2644

Thepurpose of this study is to investigate the impact of role ambiguity and interpersonal conflict on job embeddedness. The study also investigates the mediating rolethat interpersonal conflict plays between role ambiguity and job embeddedness. Data for the study was obtained from the service sector organizations. Data collected from245 respondents usingvoluntary cross-sectional online survey method. The analysis was carried out using regression and process macro. Results revealed that interpersonal conflict at the workplace plays a reflective role between role ambiguity and job embeddedness. The results have also supported findings of previous literature. Besidesthis study making a theoretical contribution,it also provides an insight into various practical implications to practitioners.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2627-2635

Highly motivated employees of an organization can prove their utility. There are various tools and methods by which employees motivational level can be enhanced. One of these tools is the transformational style of manger. In order to save time and money, this study is conducted in Lahore. 11 Banks (Private and Public) were selected for research purpose. The data was collected through questionnaire. A total of about 200 questionnaires were distributed among different employees, however only 150 employees of bank gave their the response rate was 75 %. The study witnesses the positive and significant association between level of employee’s commitment with the organization and transformational leadership style. The research study recommended that mangers should make the best use of their transformational leadership styles in a bid to get the optimum output their employees. It will not only retain the existing employees but would also attract the new employees.


Dr. Hafiz Nasir Ali, Dr.Muhammad Ashraf, Dr. Tariq Mahmood, Dr. Muhammad Amin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2636-2640

In this paper, some typologies of educational system of Pakistan are discussed which are elaborated which are elaborated by column writers and editors of printed media of Pakistan in different newspapers from the year 2010 to 2014. The purpose of this paper is to point out weak aspects of our educational system so that improvement for these weak aspects might be dome. In this way the fruit full results in education sector may be gained. In this paper, status of teacher for improving our educational atmosphere is also discussed for societal and economic changes in curriculum for gaining real development. In short, this paper presents some differences in educational sector and the facilities and standard of education because of teachers’ ability and capability also. 


RuqiaShaheen, Najma Yasmeen, Sidra Iqbal Sadia Masood

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2645-2653

Income poverty is defined as the lack of necessities for minimum material wellbeing determined by the national poverty line. Human Poverty means the denial of choices and opportunities for a life in all economic and social aspects.For this purpose, Secondary data is used to analyze the linkages between Education,Poverty, and economic growth. The study used data from different sources for the period of 1976 to 2020. ARDL was applied for the analysis. Econometric analysis is carried out to analyze the connection between the core variables of the study. The conclusion is of the view that poverty must be reduced for the engravened of economic growth. The industrial sector positively impacts economic growth Data on these variables is collected from different sources.It is recommended that the government and other policymakers focus on resolvingpoverty and unemployment in Pakistan.Government should make different policies to reduce poverty.Poverty reduction and education enhancing policies should be adopted for the development of the economic growth of the country


Dr. Hamid Ullah, Dr. Hamid Ali Shah, Dr Sajjad Ahmad Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2654-2666

The study investigates the impact of the females at the top, females with majority and minority ownership, and females as workers on the export orientation. Moreover, the study also examines the value relevance of the product, process, market, and organizational innovation in the relationship between the females at four different levels in hierarchy and export orientations in the case of emerging markets. The study use data of Enterprise survey conducted by the World Bank from 2002 to 2019 for 40 emerging countries. The sample included 20,019 export-oriented firms. We use hierarchical regression models for estimation. The results of various models show that females at the top position and females with majority ownership have a positive and significant effect on the export orientation. However, female minority ownership and female workers have no significant influence on export orientation. Moreover, product, market, and process innovations have a positive and significant incremental effect in the relationship between females at the top and females holding majority ownership and export orientation. The theory of internationalization is found valid as females in the two significant positions (majority shareholdings and manager at top) are found relevant to the export orientation of the firms. The findings of the study that females as controlling shareholder behave differently than men in emerging markets challenge the principal-principal agency conflicts. Organizations chasing the goal to improve their revenues and grow through exports shall try to attract female investors and hire or promote female to the rank of top-level managerial positions.Moreover, the results of the study encourage small firms to employ and utilize the potentials of females as managers and focus on innovations to exploit export opportunities.Whereas, to boost exports of the local industries, governments are required to provide structural and legal support.   


Sobia Murtaza Dr. Akhtiar Ali

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2667-2675

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the impact of expected infrastructure investment under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) on the debt burden of countries participating in BRI. As a result of Belt and Road debt lending, national debt in some countries is expected to skyrocket. This paper assesses the medium-term debt vulnerability of BRI investments among participant countries. BRI investment debt loans will be fully repaid in the medium term (2012-2026), but the impact on the full growth of BRI-related infrastructure will not be fully exploited. BRI is expected to drive overall growth and nearly one-third of rated BRI recipients will face an increased debt burden.


Raheel Farooqui, Sheikh Muhammad Ali, Mehdi Abbas

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2676-2684

In this study we examined the relationship between the impact of style, price and quality on consumer perception. I used a survey technique and taken 100 samples from Kasbit Institute in Karachi and prioritized by SPSS. I used correlation and regression technique to find out the relationship between variables. The empirical findings suggest that there is a significance relationship exists between perception and style and there is an insignificance relationship between pricing, qualities on consumer perception.  The implications of the study are that a company should better manage their pricing and quality factors with the customers as a competitive policy in informal clothing marketplace. The weak side of the study is that it is limited to a single industry of Fashion clothing industry.


Dr. Sumedha Tuteja, Mr. Kenate Beyane , Dr. Rashmi Jain, Dr. G. Radha Krishna Murthy , Dr. Abdul Razak

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2692-2697

This study introduces a novel pattern recognition method. Hidden Markov Models are used to build the system (HMMs). We modify the Hidden Markov Models Toolkit (HTK) to address the pattern recognition problem in this paper. HTK was created for the purpose of voice recognition research. The mean of feature vectors is used to define patterns at first. By adding headers and displaying them in consecutive frames, such feature vectors are transformed to HTK format. A Windowing function is applied to each one. HTK then uses feature vectors for training and recognition tests.For the trials, we used 1600 randomly generated patterns from sixteen different consumer groups. The obtained findings demonstrate the efficacy of the suggested method.


Dr.ArchanaMV , Smt.Shilpashree.M.S ,Dr. Sumedha Tuteja, Prof. Aditya Khandwe,Vikas Rajkumar Sharma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2698-2708

Employee empowerment is one such tool for building trustful relationship in the work place which also initiates high level performance. In an organization if employees suffer from role ambiguity or role conflicts this can adversely influence the organizational performance and also hinder individual performance resulting in loss of interest among the employees. In order to overcome this, every organization has to implement empowerment techniques which enhance the confidence of the employees and also the interest of employees in their role and contribution. Employee empowerment has always flaunted positive impact on the mindset of the employees which in turn helps in improving their working ability as well as overall performance of the organization. It provides freedom to the employee to share their innovative ideas to improve the organization in the long run.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2737-2742

Dual sector inflation is essential for any country, and so it is for Pakistan. In this study, we estimate the long-run and short-run relationship among the variables using 1974 to 2020. The ARDL technique is used for this purpose. Data has been collected by the World Development Indicator and also by Hand Book of statistics. Data consists of time series data. When the price level of goods and services increases, people will chase few goods and commodities. This will have a significant impact on the economy. As a result, economic growth will significantly be affected to either move upward or maybe in a downward direction. There are many types of inflation which are demand-pull inflation, cost-push inflation, and built-in inflation. From an economics point of view, inflation is a regular increase or rise in the general price level of goods and services in an economy. When the general price level increases, every unit of paper money buys fewer goods and services. Inflation reflects a reduction in the consumer's purchasing power per unit of money currency, which is the loss of real value. Inflation is increasing day by day and is having the worst effect on the economy. It is controlled by Fiscal Policy as well as monetary policy.


Maciej Świtalski, Millena Ruszkowska

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2743-2753

The analysis of cohesiveness and flowing properties is based on the determination of the physicochemical properties of powdered food. The research material of the study consisted of 7 types of protein preparations. The protein supplements were analysed in terms of: water activity and water content, bulk density, static angle of repose (cone angle) wettability and kinetic angle of repose in order to determine initially their suitability for transport on the production line. The products were differentiated by water content and activity. The highest level of these parameters was observed in organic pumpkin protein what resulted in reduction of bulk density of the product. The performed determinations indicated mostly intermediate cohesiveness and at most fair flowability of the majority of the tested powdered protein supplements. All preparations, with the exception of pumpkin and brown rice products, had poor wettability. Some of the preparations especially beef protein isolate may cause flow obstructions.


Magdalena Piłat-Borcuch,Dr, Katedra Ekonomii i Finansów, Wydział Prawa i Nauk Społecznych,

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2754-2757

Miasta jako kwintesencja zjawisk wszelkich i jako laboratoria społecznych przeobrażeń są obszarami rozstrzygającymi dla losów światowych gospodarek. Intensywność dokonujących się w miastach przemian dotyczy życia społecznego (społecznych interakcji; dyfuzji kulturowej; różnorodności wartości, norm, obyczajów, postaw…) i gospodarczego, w którym prym wiodą sektory związane z usługami. Należy przy tym dodać, że miasta wiodące i rozstrzygające dla przyszłości gospodarek, to metropolie a ich miejskie funkcje rozwinęły się wskutek wielu przemian cywilizacyjnych oraz rozwoju technologicznego. Z całą pewnością jednak siłą sprawczą rozwoju metropolii stał się proces globalizacji, w toku którego wykształciła się współpraca między największymi miastami świata prowadząca do współzawodnictwa w wymiarze ekonomicznym i politycznym[1]. Proces globalizacji ma jednak janusowe oblicze. Dając miastom spektakularne możliwości rozwoju, sprawił, że właśnie miasta najbardziej dotkliwie odczuły skutki pandemii COVID-19. Lockdown przedefiniował sposób funkcjonowania miast dostarczając nowych płaszczyzn dla naukowej refleksji.

[1] M. S. Szczepański, B. Kozielska, Miasto jako przedmiot badań socjologii [w:] B. Jałowiecki (red.), Miasto jako przedmiot badań naukowych w początkach XXI wieku, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa 2008, s. 135-136.


Zakkia Uzair Asim Mehmood

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2396-2406

This papershows to measure the impact of non-financial rewards on the motivation of employees in different banks of Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to know the impact of the non-financial rewards on employee’s motivation andwill classify to what extent the HR are taking care of this source of employee motivation.The paper follows an empirical study and quantitative approach. For non-financial rewards, there are fiveindependent variables taken for this study; rewards & recognition, career opportunity, promotion, participation of employees in decision-making and responsibility to identify their impact on the employee’s motivation. For effective collection of primary data from the target respondents, a Likert scaled questionnaire used, and 185 employees are taken from seven different banks in, Peshawar Pakistan. SPSS used to evaluate all of the data in order to find and measure the spearman association among the dependent and independent variables. All the data presented using tables.All non-financial reward variables found to have a significant association in the analysis. HR managers in the banking industry may find this study useful. The paper offers a basis for understanding organizational motivation problems. It is a valuable contribution to the field of HR management expertise, as it examines the factors that influence employee motivation and offers solutions to challenges that workers face at work. The paper would also force the banks managers to consider the issues of employee motivation for the sake of the company's overall success.


Wazir Ali Shar, Dr. Shakeel Ahmed Shaikh, Muhammad Ali Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2407-2418

The pharmaceutical companies generally lack maintenance equipment at working condition. However, increasing the availability of the maintenance system impacts the productivity and quality which ultimately satisfy the customers. Consequently, in order to overcome the challenges during the production system, it is necessary to implement the total quality management tool such as; total productive maintenance to enhance the productivity, quality and performance of the equipment which eventually increase the profitability of the company. So, data was collected from one of the reputed pharmaceutical company of Pakistan to evaluate the factors affecting the overall equipment effectiveness. Different analysis was carried out like fish bone diagram  to find out the potential cause and Pareto chart was used to priorities the problem and also the descriptive analysis was conducted in which mean of availability, performance and quality were obtained 82.8% ,81.6% and 88.7% respectively. Total average OEE was 60%. After implementing of TPM and minimizing the six big losses. In order to minimize of losses like equipment failure, idling and minor stoppage and process defect. Our OEE was increased from 60% to 71%.


Mehran Bacha, Fazli Wadood, Fazal Akbar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2432-2443

This paper aims to examine the impact of soft power factors on exchange rate volatility of South and East Asian countries. In past, very limited research work has been done regarding soft power factors and their relationship with exchange rate volatility in South and East Asian countries. This paper is an attempt to explore how soft power factors (including governance variables, population variables, education variables, financial variables, and economic growth variables) capturing countries influence components of exchange rate volatility. However, present paper has used monthly panel data set of nineteen South and East Asian countries during the period of 2007-2017, PCA index of soft power variables are constructed and common effect fixed effect panel data techniques are used for analysis. Exchange rate volatility is measured through Arch Garch. Results concluded that, population variables and financial variables have significant negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. Meanwhile, governance variable, education variables, and economic growth variables have insignificant relationship with exchange rate volatility. This paper will contribute in existing literature theoretically and also provides important policy implications for financial and public institutions.


Kholikulov Ozod Kholmirzaevich Kholikulov Ozod Kholmirzaevich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2455-2471

This paper discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of construction machines, including their condition, movement, and a system of performance indicators, as well as auditing procedures. such as ideas and recommendations for how to improve their work's methods for expressing mathematical formulas. To improve the classification, category, condition, movement, and audit of construction machinery in building projects, proposals and recommendations have been established.Scientific developments on the structure of fixed assets in construction companies in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the types of construction machinery, the description of their work, their condition, movement and a system of indicators representing their activities are reflected


Elnaz Basirian Mohammad Hadi Sehatpour

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2444-2454

In a liquid market, trades could take place quickly and at a fair price. Considering the importance of liquidity as one of the main indexes of financial markets efficiency, recognizing the factors affecting this phenomenon is a great matter of importance.In this regard, the present study aimed to examine factors affecting the liquidity in Iran’s gold futures market using the data of gold coin future contracts from 2017 to 2018. Being more precise in liquidity measurement due to the concentration on the current market situation, as well as, having a better performance than trading-based criteria in such applications, two order-based criteria of “bid and ask spread” and “the depth of market” were taken into account.Considering the related literature, the most important factors on liquidity such as trade volume, volatility, and price level were identified to investigate their impacts on the liquidity criteria. Subsequently, employing the multivariate linear regression led to the conclusion thatthere is a significant and direct relationship between the volatility of futures contract prices and the depth of market in future contracts on gold coin in Iran Mercantile Exchange (IME) while, the relation between the other factors with the aforementioned criteria are negligible.


MamadjanovZokirjon, Mukhtorjon Sobirov

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2472-2474

A number of scientific researches on the development of technologies for obtaining fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients on the basis of local raw materials have been organized at a high level in our country and theoretical and practical results have been achieved on the basis of wide-coverage measures on the development of economically effective methods of their application in agriculture. In this regard, it is an important task to create a technology of complex production of new varieties with high efficiency on the basis of Central Red cumin phosphates. Proceeding from this, it was studied to obtain a new type of complex fertilizers on the basis of chlorphosphoric acid porridge, urea and potassium chloride, decomposed in hydrochloric acid thermocentrate obtained from Central Redwood phosphorites.


Bakhriddinov Nuriddin Sadriddinovich Bakhriddinov Nuriddin Sadriddinovich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2475-2478

  The article shows a decrease in the amount of free acids of simple superphosphate can be achieved through the use of technology for long-term storage of products, as well as mixing technology using screws.


Santosha Kumar Mallick; Ambar Najma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2479-2486

Teaching as a profession has been considered to involve a wide range of job-related demands which required high flexibility and multidimensional skills. Though the teacher’s core business is to enhance the achievements and learning of students yet many other underrated tasks such as university administration and development, cooperation outside and within and the university are required from the teacher, which become potential stressors and consequently acknowledged as a crucial feature for their burnout and turnover.The current research aimed to investigate challenging job demands, work engagement and job burnout among purposively selected universityteachers from Punjab Province, Pakistan. Challenging Job Demands (Makhdoom, 2017), Ultra-Short Measure for Work Engagement (Schaufeli et al., 2017) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti et al., 2010) questionnaires were used to measure the variables of the present research. Results showed that challenging job demandshad a positive predictive relationship with work engagement, which meansthat those teachers who perceive their job as challenging were more engaged in work. Mediation analysis through Process Macron(version 3.5) revealed job burnout significantly and partially mediated between challenging job demands and work engagement. The current study concluded that challenging job demands were a strong and positive predictor of work engagement among teachers. However, the present study also concluded a significant and partial mediating role of job burnout in the relationship of challenging job demands and work engagement of teachers. The present study has some recommendations for future researchers.


Dinda Ayu Lubaba Udin Udin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2487-2491

Purpose –This study aims to examine and analyze: (1) the direct effect of transformational leadership on employee championing behavior; (2) the direct influence of transformational leadership on work engagement; (3) the direct effect of work engagement on employee championing behavior; and (4) the effect of work engagement in mediating the relationship between transformational leadership and employee championing behavior.
Methodology/Approach – This study uses a qualitative method by analyzing and reviewing the results of previous studies related to the relationship between transformational leadership, work engagement, and employee championing behavior. This study analyses the 20 most recent articles published in reputable international journals obtained by accessing,, and
Findings – The results show that transformational leadership significantly affects employee championing behavior and work engagement. Furthermore, work engagement plays a vital role in mediating the relationship between transformational leadership and employee championing behavior.
Originality/ Value/ Implication – Due to the finite and limited amount of existing research, the results of this study add value and develop literature related to the relationship between transformational leadership, work engagement, and employee championing behavior.


Roikhan Mochamad Aziz Roikhan Mochamad Aziz

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2492-2500

Purpose: the purpose of this study is to analyze tourism in the Ratu Baka area which is written as Bibakkah in the Quran 3.96. Methodology: This study uses descriptive analysis. The method used is the Hahslm 472319 with Holy Book. The object of this research is Ratu Baka, Quran 3.96 and 72 stupas. Results: The results are the Ratu Baka tourist complex and Borobudur is one area. By the word, Bibakkah means by bakkah in Quran 3.96 which refers to Ratu Baka. The builder of the 72 stupas is Ratu Baka reinforced by the word “placed” meaning it can be moved. The reflexivity of 3.96 is in the stupa in the form of 3 floors, 7+2 stupa which is 9, and factorization 16, 24, 32 in the form of 1+2+3, and 6+4+2 which is 6. Discussion: Tourism management in the Ratu Baka area is in the form of an empty building that has been relocated to Borobudur. Ratu Baka and Borobudur are under the same management company. The limit on the number of 72 stupas built holds phenomenal and absolute meanings. The largest historic temple building in the world, namely Borobudur has The 72 stupas refer to phenomenal occurrences with absolute and differential. Tourism management also needs to be done with a phenomenal modern physics pattern with quantum reality in its wave interference. The similarity is found in the meaning of 7 waves and 2 gaps in the interference physics process, then reflected in the code of the 72 stupas that were built. The research concludes that tourism management needs to develop the Ratu Baka area according to the Quran 3.96 in the form of the word Bibakkah with the constant Hahslm 472319 in the Covid economic era.


AtikahProverawati,Najmudin, AsepSaepuloh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2501-2507

Healthscience students havean understanding ofthe high effectiveness of disposable masks. Many masks on the market can change the choice of mask type for their daily needs. This qualitative research with a phenomenological approach was usedin-depth interviews. The research sample was six students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of JenderalSoedirman. The results found some factors related to mask preference in health sciences students. Further research may be needed in production and marketing issues.


Ndaru Ruseno, Imam Suprapta Manase Sahat H Simarangkir, Cepi Cahyadi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2508-2521

Learning is an innovation from the industrial era 4.0 where learning is done online, e-learning is not a new thing. But the problem is there are still very few people who talk about how to manage an e-learning project this goes well and smoothly, the purpose of this writing is to designhow to manage e-learning projects using the agile scrum method. and the results becomes more effective. The advantage of using the found When applying this agile approach to eLearning project management.Agile management through this scrum method almost forces participants or clients to increase their participation in eLearning.


Istianah Zainal Asyikin Fadia Fitriyanti

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2522-2529

: This is a normative-empirical research aimed at determining the suitability of murabahah financing practices at Sharia Rural Bank (BPRS) in the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY).  The results showed that the practice of murabahah financing in BPRS in DIY is carried out sequentially as follows. First, profit is determined based on the interest of conventional banks. Second, installments are calculated using the annuity formula. Third, down payment and collateral are applied to customers. Fourth, reward and punishment are applied to the customer. Fifth, financing is realized using the wakalah and murabahah agreement implemented before the murabahah object becomes the bank's property. The first to fourth practices are carried out in accordance with sharia law, excluding the fifth, which contains gharar prohibited in Shariah.


Tri Maryati Erwan Setiarto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2530-2537

This empirical study discusses the factors that cause students' interest in entrepreneurship and examines the differences in the factors that generate interest in entrepreneurship in management students at Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta and Universitas  Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. In this empirical study the number of respondents was 125 people. The sampling technique was purposive sampling, namely students who had attended entrepreneurship courses and had attended entrepreneurship seminars. The data analysis tool uses multiple regression with SPSS software. The results of data analysis indicate that the student's interest in entrepreneurship is affected by entrepreneurship education and income expectations with positive and significanteffect. In addition, there are significant differences in responses about income expectations, entrepreneurship education, and interest in entrepreneurship in Management students of UNY and UMY Management students.


Suseno Hendratmoko Suseno Hendratmoko

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2538-2545

The dynamics of the business environment in the midst of the Covid19 pandemic since few months ago until now has made business people think more creatively so that their business activities can survive. Through innovation, product development, and improvement of prime product quality, it is hoped that it can create a competitive advantage compared to other similar products. From the research conducted on the object of research, Bakpia kukus brand Tugu Yogyakarta, obtained results from 150 respondents using random sampling techniques as follows: (1) the influence of product innovation variables has a positive and significant effect on competitive advantage; (2) product development variables have a positive and significant effect on competitive advantage; and (3) product quality variables also have a positive effect on competitive advantage. Then it is necessary to add also based on the research results also obtained that simultaneously, the variable innovation, product development and quality have a positive and significant effect on the competitive advantage of steamed bakpia products with the Tugu brand of Yogyakarta.


RindaNurAnnisa*,JurryHatammimi Nora Amelda Rizal

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2546-2553

The development of creative industry start-ups has impacts on several aspects of the Indonesian economy. However, this industry has an obstacle, namely the difficulty of getting access to funding, including from the bank. The purpose of this study is to find out the indicators that are considered by banks from the loan/credit/funding variable. The indicators are business stage, investment period and financing model. The object of this research is banking which is part of the State-Owned Enterprises (SOE).This study is used qualitative data methods. The methods that is used in this study to get the data is semi-structured interview. This study is used triangulation of sources, to reduce the subjectivity. The result is that the loan/credit/funding variable influences the decision on access to funding. The implication of this research is to make ease the start-up especially for creative industry to get the funding from the bank.


A. Ali Imran Sadiq, Mohammad Tahir Haning, Nurdin Nara, Muhammad Rusdi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2554-2559

This study of learning organization on the implementation of e-government in the city of Makassar, the Transition of “information society”, putting the human element and the knowledge in the organization as one of the fundamental elements and even put the role of knowledge or intellectual capital in the organization as an important element which requires the expansion of the set of skills that are “hard” (technology) and “soft” (interpersonal and communication) in a balanced way. E-government has become a priority program of government agencies, both at the center and regions all over the world, who not only viewed as a project that became a trend among the government, but it leads to how to improve the accountability, transparency and effectiveness as well as the quality of service that is expected to lead to the creation of good government. The study site is located in the city of makassar. The method used in this research is included in the descriptive qualitative research, the results of his research are the Makassar City Government implement a mechanism of Learning Organization in the form of the creation of top management support, implementation of training and development of human resources based on the competence, the development of feedback on all fronts as well as the provision and development of mis (Management Information System) within the framework of e-government. The application of the mechanism of the learning Organization happens automatically as a result of the policies of the central government in implementing e-government.


Merry Violyta Fransisca Pesulima Merry Violyta Fransisca Pesulima

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2560-2563

The offering dance also known as standard dance is a religious or ritual ceremony comprising freedom of creation. Therefore, this study aims to identify the offering dance as a means of socializing religious values in the Catholic Church, Ganjuran, Yogyakarta. This is a qualitative research with anthropological and art approaches. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and documents. The obtained data were analyzed through data reduction, presentation, and verification procedures. Furthermore, the triangulation of data sources, methods, and theories was used to determine their validity. The values of religiosity associated with offering dance used the Bouman's analysis to determine the values considered sacred by the community. These values are used as guidelines and further analyzed based on Maclever's socialization analysis, which is a process that individuals go through to learn the norms, values, roles, and all other requirements needed to enable effective participation in social life. The results showed that the offering dance used as a means of socialization comprises educational, tolerance, moral education, culture, aesthetics, and social solidarity values. In addition, the findings also showed that the offering dance has been passed down from generation to generation with symbols capable of indirectly affecting the condition of the congregation and society.


Rachmawati MeitaOktaviani Zulaikha Zulaikha

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2564-2571

This study aims to examine the effect of leverage on tax avoidance with independent commissioners and institutional ownership as moderating variables. The population in this study uses manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) 2016-2020. This study uses secondary data. The sample of this study consisted of 15 companies the sampling technique used purposive sampling. The data were analyzed using the panel data moderation regression analysis method. The results show that leverage has no and significant effect on tax avoidance, independent commissioners can weaken the effect of leverage on tax avoidance, and institutional ownership does not moderate the effect of leverage on tax avoidance.


Nur Hidayah , Qurratul Aini Muh Amin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2572-2576

The improvement of information technology in health services can improve health services in hospitals. In the long term, information technology will increase hospitals’ efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity in achieving the hospital vision. This study aimsto obtain the most appropriate information technology system in the private hospital in Central Java, Indonesia. This study involved a case study method by conducting Focus Group Discussion (FGD), documentation study, and interview in stages to find out the right strategy as a part of the strategic plan for the years 2021-2025. FGD participants were the work unit managers who are members of the Hospital Strategic Plan Team. The result pointed out that the hospital hadimplemented a technology information system to provide services to patients from registration, electronic medical records specifically for pediatric and neurological polyclinics to the billing system. Information and communication technology will be implemented until the next five years consisting of an online human resource (HR) management information system, an online financial management information system, an onlineoperational management system, and Electronic Medical Records for all policlinics.


Dessy Rachmawatie, EkoPriyo Purnomo Anita Fitria, Aqil Teguh Fathani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2577-2585

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the number of domestic tourists, the unemployment rate, the value of exports, and cases of COVID-19 on the gross regional domestic product (GRDP)in DKI Jakarta during the face of COVID-19. The researchers used secondary data analysis and reviewed relevant literature studies. This study applied quantitative methods and used secondary data. The data wereobtained from the websites of the DKI Jakarta Central Statistics Agency and the DKI Jakarta COVID-19 Task Force. The data obtained were time-series data types in 2019-2020. Data analysis employed EViews9, anddata were analyzed utilizing a regression estimation model of time series with a quantitative approach. The results showed that during COVID-19, domestic tourist visits had a positive and insignificant effect on GRDP with a probability value of 0.2286. The unemployment rate and COVID-19 cases had a significant negative effect on GRDP with a probability value of -0.0003 and -0.0143, respectively. Meanwhile, exports had a significant positive effect on GRDP with a probability value of 0.0049. Besides, this research paper highlights an empirical analysis based on real data of tourism and socio-economics in DKI Jakarta.


Dr. Abdelmonem Ghrairi Dr. Abdelmonem Ghrairi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2586-2595

Evolving in a globalized economy and facing increasing pressure from their business partners, Tunisian SMEs are facing new challenges in managing their performance. To meet these challenges, Tunisian SMEs must adopt management tools that allow them to maintain the excellence they need, i.e., tools that measure their performance in a multidimensional, efficient and effective manner.
However, this need to measure and manage performance facesan absence of tools adapted to this type of companies that take into account both their limited resources and their expertise to be able to use them effectively.
 Furthermore, in recent years the evolution of management control systems has resulted in the questioning of the relevance of financial measures as representative of business success and the diffusion of performance measurement systems designed to take into account different complementary strategic perspectives.
Developed for large firms, the approaches advocated would be incompatible with the practice of performance measurement in small firms (Hudson, Smart and Bourne, 2001). The paucity of empirical research on performance measurement systems in SMEs has been highlighted by many studies. 
Lack of knowledge about performance measurement systems developed in SMEs invites the study of the features of these systems in this type of businesses. This study also contributes to documenting the specific problem of performance measurement systems in SMEs. 
Using the results of an empirical study based on a quantitative survey of 57 Tunisian companies, this paper analyzes the features of performance measurement systems implemented in small and medium-sized enterprises and shows the diversity of practices of SMEs. This study provides Tunisian SMEs managers and advisors with an empirical framework for the design, improvement and evaluation of performance measurement systems.


Fazli Wadood, Fazal Akbar Imran Ullah

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2419-2431

Pilot testing is the most appropriate tool and play indispensable role while conducting large scale survey to increase the reliability, validity and practicability of the questionnaire, especially in management, social sciences and education studies. Although there are several widely adopted rules of thumb regarding the respondents of pilot testing in respective circumstances like ‘How to conduct and whom to include in the sample?’ is one of the most frequently asked questions in survey research. The prime aim of this study is to provide clear guidelines for future researchers to increase their research reliability. In the first phase we have reviewed and discussed different pilot studies. Secondly, we reviewed the suggested and adopted rules related to pilot testing. In the last, we present the findings/guidelines based on analysis of the different studies. This step to by step guidelines does not provide only researchers the basic understanding of how to conduct pilot testing but also enhances their understanding regarding the importance of the validity and reliability of their studies.


Khawar Ahmed khan , Muhammad Awais,Naveed Ahmed khan Salman khan , Maryam Ali

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2685-2691
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.135

OR has been instrumental in making transportation processes more efficient, and companies compete to tackle complex logistics and transport problems in a way that has been competitive since its beginning. To improve decision-making,OR as a discipline of systemic nature has tackled the complexity of issues and interconnections among systems components. This study intends to view how OR methods are used in the latest transportation and logistics trends. Different Era's of the growth of OR's contributions to transportation and logistics with the development of information and communication technology (ICT) has been presented. This study filled a gap in the existing literature by describing the latest prevailing trends using OR methods in the context of transportation and logistics and the previous study. Results indicate that operational research is more important now than ever before, and can support new technologies and trends.


Popescu Anca Simina Călin Raluca

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2737-2745
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.136

The evolution of society has attracted positive changes in all fields of activity, implicitly in agriculture, but at the same time the increase in productivity in agriculture has also come with negative consequences, as they have significantly increased the use of fuel for agricultural machinery, electricity for automatic systems. In addition to providing safe and nutritious food, organic production is considered sustainable and protects natural resources and the health of consumers.
In this context, the main objective of the research is to analyse the current state of organic food on the Romanian market compared to the European Union by taking into account the main aspects of the market, to identify its weaknesses, challenges and opportunities. For these reasons, we believe that the chosen topic is current, the research team thus assuming an active role in participating in campaigns to promote and inform consumers about the benefits of consuming organic products.


Dr. Rakibul Hasan, Dr. G M Mokbul Hossain, Dr.Mainul Mahmud Dr. Debashish Das, Dr. Samaresh Chandra Saha

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2746-2753
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.137

Background: The outcomes of enhancing vascular access remain an ongoing challenge for vascular surgery. Mature fistulas have better longevity and require fewer interventions. The major obstacle to increasing fistula approach is the higher rate of failure due to the maturity of newly created fistulas. Hemodialysis access fistulas are the lifeline of an end stage renal disease patient on hemodialysis. With the raise in the rate of development of end stage renal disease, the creation of arteriovenous fistula has become the most frequent performing procedure in a vascular surgery outpatient department.
Aim of The Study:The purpose of this study was to compare the early and long-term outcomes of trans venous and trans radial fistuloplasty in a single surgeon's practice and to provide information on treatment strategies for patients with end-stage renal disease
.Material & Methods: This prospective study was carried out in vascular care center in Ibn Sina hospital, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2017 to 2019A total number of 50 patients who needed endovascular interventions for non-functioning fistula, were selected for the study. The inclusion criteria were thrombotic or fibrous stenosis of >50% of luminal area and flow volume <600ml/min on Doppler ultrasound study. The exclusion criteria were-primary failure of AV fistula, critical stenosis (>90% reduction in luminal diameter), long segment venous stenosis (>2.5cms), stenosis that were associated with the presence of a small or calcified or stenotic feeding artery due to progressive atherosclerosis
. Results: The mean age of patients was 54.14±7.05 and 50.3±8.65 years. Male were 18(51.4%) & 17(48.6%) and female 9(60%) & 6(40%) in group A and group B. Three types of intervention offered (thrombolysis 6%, balloon dilatation 74% and stenting 20%).  Follow up after 6 months, 80% fistula were functional and 20% non-functional. Conclusion: Conventional trans venous fistuloplasty, is an effective way of dealing with a non-functioning haemodialysis fistula. In the past, this technique was employed for maintaining access for hemodialysis. Transradial approach is relatively safer, as it has fewer chances of distal embolization. The identification of AV anastomosis is easier and the whole procedure can be performed safely with less fluoroscopic exposure


Furqan Ullah, Hamid Ullah, Shahid Jan Muhammad Asif, Faiza Mahreen

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2754-2767
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.138

The current study attempts to examine the associationbetween collective perception and exchange rates in Pakistan. We argue that people search online for information on currency exchange rates,and this online searching activity is transformed into data that could reflect people’s interest in a given currency.The current study used Google Trends data of seven pairs of currencies to account for the level of interest in these currencies in Pakistan. Pairs of currencies include United Arab Emirates Dirham, Saudi Arabian Riyal, US dollar, Kuwaiti dinar, Qatari riyal, Omani riyal, and Canadian dollar against Pakistani rupees. Currencies are selected based on the highest level of remittances received in these currencies. The study has utilized data from 2010 to 2019 and used vector-autoregressive models forestimations.The results showed a significant impact of the collective perception measured through google trends data on exchange rates in Pakistani exchange markets.The authors analyzed the Google trends search queries for only seven pairs of currencies against the exchange rate in Pakistan. To be safe in the current and future, Investors in foreign and local currency exchange markets can benefit from the findings of this study at large. So, we argue that investors seeking information on exchange rate trends in Pakistan could utilize Google Trends information to forecast the future and make decisions accordingly. Google is widely used globally and hence in Pakistan due to the emerging trends of heavily relying on google searches for so many reasons. More specifically, exchange rates are searched on google, and thus google trends show the trends per click. This study is the first to investigate the google trends search data associated with the exchange rates in Pakistani markets with a broader view of collection perception in Pakistan.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2768-2775
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.139



Dr. Mythili Kolluru, Mr. V.Ch. MadhuSudhana Rao Kondaveeti, Mrs. Sana Adbul Rahman Ali Al Balushi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2776-2783
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.140

Talent is a set of personal characteristics that enhance the performance of individuals.This study explores the effectiveness of the talent management program "Al Mawahib" in achieving the vision 2020 of Bank Dhofar. The bank has established its place as Oman's second-largest bank with 73 branches.  Bank Dhofar launched a comprehensive strategic transformation plan that comprises various initiatives and projects. Bank Dhofar initiated the "Together 2020" the strategic transformation plan to meet the Vision 2020. The HR then developed a talent management program to support the organization objectives. The study traces the progress of the Al Mawahib talent development program. The study is qualitative research with an in-depth interview method with senior staff members. Content analysis was used to analyze the data from personal interviews. The study reveals that this program targets young and potential leaders. Linkage to the vision statement 2020 of Bank Dhofar is established. This program has trained 170 employees, who will train employees in their branches, which is the uniqueness of this program.
Keywords: Bank, Employee development, Strategy, Talent management, Talent development, Training and Development, Vision.


Yoqubjonova Yoqutxon G’ulomjonovna, YuldashevShakhbozXoshimjono’gli

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2784-2788
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.141

Corn is not only a feed product needed for livestock and poultry, but also the most important food product for humans. Today, in all categories of farms of the republic it is planned to plant corn as the main crop on 138,500 hectares for grain, from which 1210,900 tons of grain will be harvested. However, harvesting harvested corn for grain is one of the most difficult and arduous processes, with quality harvesting at an early stage without destroying the ripe crop in a mechanized manner.


Mr.A.Appu Dr.S.G.Balaji

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2789-2793
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.142

Personal demographics play a role in the usage and satisfaction of metro rail. It may be due to the level of awareness, and the usage interest has a close association with the earnings and age. Gender helps free movement of people without time frame and constraints. Hence, modern transport systems usage has a moderate level of association with the personal and social demographics of the commuters is observed in the study. For the survey, three divisions of metro rail are taken up, and the sample size of 683 is arrived at using the scientific method. The present research is descriptive, and the data collection tools are prepared and tested with reliability alpha and found it as 0.896 and found reliable. The results observed that gender, lifestyle, and occupation significantly affect the usage and satisfaction towards metro rail in the sample. On the other hand, age, level of income, frequency of travel has no association with the level of usage and satisfaction.


Dr. Sajid Mehmood Shahzad, Muhammad Rafi Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2794-2805
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.143

Global governance is all about interdependence. It started with economic interdependence even without groupings, alignments, and alliances. Bilateral and multilateral economic processes gave rise to joint frameworks in social and political environments. Together they formed a system where ethics and normative principles can also be introduced to increase commonalities to avoid conflicts. Alliances and organizations are consequential evidence of such common agendas. BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) is one such example that promotes shared aims. It also has brought apparent enemies, i.e., China and India, closer to fostering economic and political stability for a better global society. Bilateral and multilateral trade among BRICS members is also an important aspect of this study. It is an important endeavor to understand how BRICS emerged as an important player in the international political system. Both role theory and complex interdependence are applied to develop a clear perspective of how one South American, three Asian, and one African nation can assert socially defined roles to reinforce global governance. However, all these nations can also act individually apart from gaining economic and political reinforcements through interdependence. Each nation in BRICS is individually and significantly impacting regional and transregional levels as vibrant and emerging economies. Other regional and transregional groups must take BRICS seriously as the post-American world may see any/most of these economies evolving as hyperpower(s) to challenge unipolarity.


Muhammad Furquan, Nighat Moin, Muhammad Nabeel Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal Raees,

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2806-2811
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.144

Background:The tourism industry is considered to be a million-dollar industry with its ability to increase the cash flows and ability to sell things for higher prices than usual. Pakistan is a very lucrative country for travellers with an immense amount of diversity in culture as well as weather. There are a number of historic, adventurous, exotic, and peaceful spots in Pakistan to attract travellers and boost their tourism industry.
Methods: This study aimed to examine the influence of international tourism receipts and expenditure on the gross domestic product of Pakistan& also recommend public policies. Time series data for twenty-four years was gathered in this study and regression analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized relationships.
Results:Findings of this study have reflected the significant and positive impact of the hypothesized variables on the economy of Pakistan.


Ghulam Hussain,Tabssum Naz, Naeem Shahzad, Muhammad Javed Bajwa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2812-2822
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.145

Background: Social media is one of the most frequently utilized platforms to share all news and information nowadays. Therefore, it remains an effectual method towards approaching the target people by using social media so it is becoming most popular for supporting fan engagement and marketing through social media. Illustration content like videos is an effectual method for conveying messages and engaging with fans. Therefore the research is aimed at examining and finding the effectiveness of the using social media platforms for fan engagement.
Methods: The standard questionnaire was adapted from past researches and a cross-sectional survey method was conducted. The sample size was 384 out of these sample size, there were 225 males and 161 females. Data about this research was collected and then analyzed by using SPSS version 23.
Results: The research showed that the majority of the sample population prefers to watch a video. They present the explanations such as it presents an obvious message as well as eliminates all confusions. It remains time saving as well as attracting for the watchers. Majority of the responses agree that social media platforms enable a better communication and connection with the teams. Facebook and Instagram are the most used social media platforms.
Conclusion: From this current research we can conclude that social media marketing by using social media platforms (mostly Facebook and Instagram) can attract people toward more engagement with their sports team. One cause is that Facebook as well as Instagram are almost effortless to have access to and also very frequently utilized nowadays. Furthermore, social media platforms are easier to convey the ideas visibly eliminating the misunderstandings also the major cause is that it saves the time of people as well as it may efficiently convey the message than any other social media platforms. All of these showings can help sport managers to better understand the wants of the fans and there increase engagement through these platforms.

Tourist buying intention towards local food: A Systematic Review

Abhay Chamoli, Shiv Mohan Verma, Devashish Pandey,Naveen Uniyal Deepika Sajwan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2823-2839
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.146

Local food buying is an important phenomenon in the touristic activity. The study is one of the first attempts to identify all kinds of direct and indirect variables that influence consumers local food buying intentionand analyzing theory of planned behaviour as the baseline model for such research. A systematic literature review on 60 different publications is conducted with application of Bibliometrics of tware(VOSviewer) to exhibit local food research network and tourist local food buying intention.Through a comprehensive review of important publications, the key findings
provide, a classification of numerous variables along with (TPB) theory of planned behaviour as a baseline framework for analyzing local food buying intention in sync with existing variables. Important implications through this research are for researchers, marketers and decision-makers who
are involved in developing and recognizing concerns relevant to the consumption of local food. The study further limits itself for further analysis in different population regions, with some quantitative


Amit Tariyal, Swati Bisht, Gaurav Chopra, Sumit Pratap, Megha Sharma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2840-2852
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.147

The eWOM platforms in today's world have become an essential source of information for every individual. However, customers perceive the eWOM platform usefulness based on the quality of information available in the platform. The present study attempts to apprehend the utilitarianperception about the eWOM platforms and the subsequent decision making for the hotelproducts and services. We propose a conceptual model and empiricallyverifyit using sample data of 338 respondents who had already experienced eWOM platforms. The study
indicates that utilitarian aspectsof the eWOM platform influence the perceived usefulness (PU) of the eWOM platforms. It is also found that the customers' purchase decision (PD) related to the hotel's products and services is affected by the PU of eWOM platforms. Furthermore, the study also shows that acceptance of the eWOM platform and subsequent PD
is influenced by gender.

Comparative Analysis of proposed Multilateral Investment Court and Permanent Multilateral Appellate Mechanism: Dilemma, Value, and Best Path Choice

Muhammad Abid Hussain Shah Jillani, Amjad Hussain, Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 2853-2869
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.148

The present study finds that establishing a permanent appeals mechanism is essential to resolve
the current legitimacy crisis regarding investor-State dispute settlement. Currently, States have
proposed two basic models of investment arbitration appellate reform to Working Group III of
the UN Commission on International Trade Law, namely the formation of a Multilateral
Investment Court (MIC) and a Permanent Multilateral Appellate Process(PMAP). The Latter is
more legitimate and feasible than the MIC. The Appellate Mechanism's (AM) review scope
should include legal and procedural errors to guarantee that the AM's error rectification function
is completely accomplished. To improve the efficiency of arbitration, factual inaccuracies should
be confined to apparent errors. Although stare decisis is not yet a general concept in international arbitration, PMAP can employ the de facto stare decisis evolved in WTO judicial practice to promote coherence and predictability of verdicts.